Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Why Do We Believe That the Earth Is Round Warm-Up Activity: Can you prove that the earth is round? Go ahead earth is round? Go ahead and try! Will."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 Why Do We Believe That the Earth Is Round Warm-Up Activity: Can you prove that the earth is round? Go ahead earth is round? Go ahead and try! Will you rely on your senses or will you have to draw on the opinions of experts?
Back Ground Information George Bernard Shaw: George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Irish playwright, critic and novelist, is widely considered the greatest British dramatist since Shakespeare, and the greatest British satirist since Swift.
Shaw’s plays often ridicule governmental or social hypocrisies of mock the conventions of polite society. In the long prefaces to the printed editions he aired his views on all sorts of subjects. In 1925 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Among his most famous plays are Widowers’ Houses. Mrs. Warren’s Profession, Arms and the Man, Man and Superman, Major Barbara, Pygmalion and Saint Joan.
The Round Earth Theory In the Sixth century B.C., The Greek Philosopher Pythagoras ( 毕达哥拉斯） Believed that the earth was a sphere because he considered this the most perfect of shapes, not from any scientific considerations.
In the fourth century B.C., both Plato and Aristotle believed that the earth was spherical. (Plato) (Aristotle) Plato, like Pythagoras, accepted this shape because it is the most perfect, but Aristotle relied more strongly on the evidence of the senses: the earth’s shadow, during a lunar eclipse, is round.
In 1521, the Portuguese navigator Magellan’s voyage around the world proved that the earth was round. ( 麦哲伦航船复制品） （麦哲伦环球航线图）
The Flat Earth Theory During the Middle Ages, clergymen denounced the spherical theory of the earth and a flat disc with Jerusalem at the center was the only orthodox concept
The Real Shape of the Earth Strictly speaking, the earth is not perfectly round. It is slightly flattened at the poles and has a bulge (an outward swelling) at the equator ( an imaginary line around the earth exactly halfway between the poles). In recent years, scientists have learned that there is another very small bulge at the North Pole. They say, therefore, that the earth is somewhat pear-shaped.
Eclipses In Astronomy the word “eclipse” is used to describe two different things: an eclipse of the sun or an eclipse of the moon. An eclipse of the sun is called a solar eclipse. It occurs when the moon passes directly in front of the sun. As seen from various points on the earth, the moon blocks out the sun. (Solar Eclipse Explanation) (Solar Eclipse Captured)
Lunar Eclipse An eclipse of the moon is called a lunar eclipse. It occurs when the full moon passes behind the earth into the earth’s shadow. Within the shadow the moon is no longer directly lighted by the sun. Explanation Lunar Eclipses
Language Points 1. Or Other (used with someone, something, somehow, somewhere, someday, sometime, etc. to show that one is not certain) Eg1: I shall be coming again someday or other. Eg2: I’ve read the story before in some book or other. Eg3: Somehow or other, John managed to get a well-paid job in the bank
2. Superstitious Superstitious: believing in superstition Eg1: Tom is very superstitious and believes the number 13 brings bad luck. Eg2: Many people have a superstitious fear of the dark
3. Cite Cite: give or mention as an example (esp. by quoting from a book to support an argument, etc. ) Eg1: The lawyer cited a previous case to support his argument. Eg2: Can you cite another example like this one?
4. Widespread Widespread: found in many places; covering a wide area. Eg1: Personal computers are in widespread use now even in many underdeveloped countries. Eg2: The problem of air pollution has attracted widespread attention.
5. Advance Advance: put or bring forward Eg1: In the 19th century, the new theory of the origin of life advanced by Darwin raised a storm of debate in England and other parts of the world. Eg2: Mary is too shy to advance her opinion at the meeting.
6. He merely swallows this theory: He accepts this theory without question or suspicion. 7. Because there is something about it that appeals to the 20th century mentality: As it has a quality that attracts the contemporary mind. It is accepted because we are willing to base much of our knowledge of the world on whatever experts tell us rather than rely on the evidence of our own senses.
Appeal to: Be attractive or interesting to Eg1: The idea of studying abroad appeals to many young people. Eg2: The magazine is intended to appeal to professional women in their 30s and 40s.
8. Exaggerate: Exaggerate: represent (sth.) as larger, worse, more important, etc, than it really is; overstate. Eg1: People don’t believe what he says because he is always exaggerating. Eg2: Tom exaggerated the dangers of the trip in order to keep her from going.
9. There is something in what he says: There is some truth in what he says. Something in/ to: some truth or value in Eg1: There is something is/ to what you say: I will take your advice. Eg2: they had to concede that there was something in his teaching methods.
10...and the questions is worth following up: and the question is worth discussing/ further Follow up: pursue or investigate closely; find out more about Eg1: They followed up the matter until they got results. Eg2: The editor of the newspaper thinks that his story is worth following up.
11. For the Sake of : For the sake of : for the good or advantage of, for the purpose of, because of Eg1: The pretty actress married an old millionaire for the sake of money. Eg2: My father used to be a “chain smoker” but now he has given up smoking for the sake of his health.
12. Throw light on: Throw light on: give new information about something; make (a situation) clearer; explain. Eg1: This newspaper article throws some/much/a clear light on the situation in the Middle East. Eg2: His diary throws light on life in England in the 17th century.
13. Refute Refute: prove (sb.) to be mistaken or (a statement) to be untrue Eg1: How would you refute the theory that the earth is flat? Eg2: The best way to refute the accusation of laziness is to work hard.
14. Horizon: Horizon: The line far away where the land or sea seems to meet the sky. Eg1: The sun had already sunk below the horizon. Eg2: Suddenly the sailors saw a ship far away on the horizon.
15.Phenomenon: Phenomenon: (pl. phenomena) sth. that happens or exists, esp. sth. that is studied because it is not understood. Eg1: The booklet gives scientific explanations to many natural phenomena. Eg2: Snow in April is not an unusual phenomenon in Inner Mongolia.
16. But it does not follow that the earth is spherical: but it is not therefore necessarily true that the earth is spherical. Or: but you cannot reason from this that the earth is spherical.
17. Follow: Follow: be or happen as a necessary effect or result Eg1: He is a good writer, but it does not follow that he is a good speaker. Eg2: Because he is a competent engineer, it does not follow that he will make a successful factory director.
18. The first card I can play: the first point I can make to support my argument. This figure of speech is often used by someone presenting an argument point by point 19. The analogy of the sun and moon: the act of comparing the earth to the sun and the moon.
20. Cast: Cast: send (light, shadow, etc) on a surface. Eg1: The candle cast a flickering light on the wall. Eg2: The tall tree casts a long shadow across the lawn in the late afternoon.
21. Defeated in the minor exchange: Defeated in the two less important rounds of debate. 22. Cover: (in card games) to play a higher card than ( the card played by the other party)
23. Statement: Statement: a written or spoken declaration, esp. of a formal kind. Eg1: They need more facts to back up their statement. Eg2: His statement is vague and no one can be sure what it means.
24. Bring out: Bring out: show, produce Eg1: Suddenly the man brought out a gun and threatened the taxi-driver with it. Eg2: As I brought the handkerchief out of my pocket, several other objects fell out.
25. Justify: Justify: give a good reason for; show to be just, right or reasonable Eg1: He tried to justify his neglect to his duties on grounds of ill health. Eg2: He is fully justified in refusing your request Eg3: Do you think you are justified in treating your old mother like that?
26. Then bang goes my ace:… then I lose my ace If you say bang goes something, you mean it suddenly becomes obvious that it cannot now succeed or be achieved. Eg1: The dog has eaten my food---bang goes my dinner! Eg2: I have broken my leg, so bang goes playing football.
27. I believe that finishes the Oval Earth man: I believe this last argument of mine completely defeats the Oval Earth man. Finish: overcome completely, kill Eg1: my answer finished him. Eg2: The Watergate scandal finished Nixon’s political career.
28. My reasons for thinking that the earth is round are rather precarious ones: My reasons for thinking that the earth is round are not well-grounded. Here the author admits that the evidence he provides is not enough to establish his beliefs beyond any doubt.
29. Exceptionally: Exceptionally: unusually Eg1: He is an exceptionally talented player in NBA history. Eg2: You have defended your position exceptionally well.
30. Fall back on: Fall back on: turn to help, use, when all else has failed. Eg1: He is a man to fall back on in an emergency. Eg2: If this plan fails, there are other plans we can fall back on.
31. Rest on Rest on: rely on, be based on Eg1: Bernard Shaw’s fame rests more on his plays than on his novels. Eg2: Columbus’s decision to sail west to reach the East rested on his belief that the earth was round.
32. Authority Authority: power over the opinions of others. Eg1: Kings used to have absolute authority over their subjects. Eg2:Prof. Smith has international authority or influence in the field of theoretical physics.
33. Stray (away) from Stray (away) from: wander away from; leave (a subject) Eg1: His sheep strayed away from his own fields to a neighbor’s. Eg2: You’ re straying away from the subject again; do please keep to the point.
34. Bother: Bother: take trouble; trouble oneself. Eg1: Don’t bother about my breakfast. I’ m not hungry in the least. Eg2: After writing an article, he never bothers to go over it again. Eg3: On her mother’s 80th birthday, Myra would not even bother to buy her a gift.
35. Outline Outline: give a short account or description Eg1: At the press conference the president outlined his peace plan for the Middle East. Eg2: We all listened carefully as Jim outlined his reasons.
36. Press Press: demand or ask continuously; urge strongly. Eg1: He looked very ill that morning and all his classmates pressed him to go and see the doctor at once. Eg2: All the children pressed the teacher to continue her manner.
37. In a way Shaw is right: To a certain degree Shaw is right. In a way: to a certain degree; in a certain but limited manner. Eg1: In a way I agree with you, but I think you could have presented your argument in a much better way. Eg2: He considered himself a great manager, and in a way he is justified.
38. This is a credulous age, and the burden of knowledge which we now have to carry is partly responsible: This is an age in which people tend to believe whatever they are told, and one reason for this is that now we have inherited so much knowledge.
39. Credulous Credulous: believing too easily in sth. Eg1: Only a credulous person would believe your stories. Eg2: Credulous people are easily fooled and often swindled. ----pay attention to the difference between the words “credulous” and “credible”
40. Burden: Burden: heavy load sb. has to carry; sth. difficult to bear. Eg1: The old woman doesn’t want to be a burden on anyone. Eg2: Ann was tired of the burden of looking after so many children.
Word Building Knowledge 1. The suffix –let is added to nouns to form other nouns, meaning a) little: booklet=a little book; b) things worn as a band on: armlet= a band worn around the arm. Now give definitions of the following words: Anklet: (a band worn around the ankle) Brooklet: (a little brook) Starlet: (a little star) Streamlet: (a little stream)
Some nouns in English have corresponding adjectives that are derived from Latin. Now some adjectives have been given, please write down the corresponding nouns in English. lunar solar nocturnal annual mental dental oral aural ocular nasal paternal maternal