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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 aol.com Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors,

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Presentation on theme: "Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 aol.com Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors, Fans and Blowers an Overview Craig E. Nelson - Consultant Engineer

2 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers Increase Fluid Energy 1.Velocity – Kinetic Energy a)Fans b)Propulsion Propellers 2.Pressure – Internal Energy – Enthalpy - Heat a)Pumps b)Compressors 2.Velocity and Pressure – Some of Both a)Pumps b)Blowers

3 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

4 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

5 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

6 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com ParameterCentrifugal PumpsReciprocating PumpsRotary Pumps Optimum Flow and Pressure Applications Medium/High Capacity, Low/Medium Pressure Low Capacity, High Pressure Low/Medium Capacity, Low/Medium Pressure Maximum Flow Rate100,000+ GPM10,000+ GPM Low Flow Rate CapabilityNoYes Maximum Pressure6,000+ PSI100,000+ PSI4,000+ PSI Requires Relief ValveNoYes Smooth or Pulsating FlowSmoothPulsatingSmooth Variable or Constant FlowVariableConstant Self-primingNoYes Space ConsiderationsRequires Less SpaceRequires More SpaceRequires Less Space CostsLower Initial Lower Maintenance Higher Power Higher Initial Higher Maintenance Lower Power Lower Initial Lower Maintenance Lower Power Fluid HandlingSuitable for a wide range including clean, clear, non-abrasive fluids to fluids with abrasive, high-solid content. Not suitable for high viscosity fluids Lower tolerance for entrained gases Suitable for clean, clear, non- abrasive fluids. Specially-fitted pumps suitable for abrasive- slurry service. Suitable for high viscosity fluids Higher tolerance for entrained gases Requires clean, clear, non- abrasive fluid due to close tolerances Optimum performance with high viscosity fluids Higher tolerance for entrained gases Pump Performance Trade offs

7 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Fluidic System Pressure vs. Flow Curve Determines the type of Pump Needed

8 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Pump Operating Curves

9 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Pump Operating Curves

10 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Fan and Blower Geometries

11 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Pump Type Efficiencies

12 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Some General Pump Theory

13 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com BERNOULLI’S THEOREM The Bernoulli equation is a special statement of the general energy equation Work added to the system is referred to as pump head (h P ) Losses from the system are referred to as head loss (h L ) Pressure (lbf/in 2 ) is a form of work Strictly Mechanical Energy so we get the equation: P 1 + PE 1 + KE 1 + WK = PE 2 + KE 2 + WK FRIC + P 2

14 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Z 1 + (P 1 /  ) + (V 1 2 /2g) = Z 2 + (P 2 /  ) + (V 2 2 /2g) + h P - h L Z : Elevation (ft) P : Pressure (lb/ft 2 )  : Density (lb/ft 3 ) V : Velocity (ft/sec) g : acceleration (32.2 ft/sec 2 ) Hp: pump head (ft) H L : Head Loss (ft) = f(L/D)(V 2 /2Zg) where f : friction factor L: Length D: Diameter BERNOULLI’S Equation

15 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Fluidic Design Equations – Bernoulli Again

16 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com THE CONCEPT OF “HEAD” The vertical difference between 2 levels of liquid –Use FT to measure the pressure exerted by a body of liquid in term of weight Head α Pressure α Energy Velocity Head –The distance a liquid would have to fall for a given V –H v = V 1 2 /2g Friction Head –H l = f(L/D)(V 2 /2Zg) where f : friction factor L: Length D: Diameter

17 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Pressure Head NET STATIC HEAD STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD STATIC SUCTION PRESSURE PUMP

18 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Head required to impart velocity to a liquid Equivalent to the vertical distance through which the liquid would have to fall to acquire the same velocity Equal to V 2 / 2g Velocity Head

19 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Friction Head The force or pressure required to overcome friction is obtained at the expense of the static pressure head Unlike velocity head, friction head cannot be “recovered” or reconverted to static pressure head Thermal energy is usually wasted, therefore resulting in a head loss from the system

20 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Centrifugal Pump Scaling “Laws”

21 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Apply to centrifugal (non-positive displacement) pumps only V  N H p  N 2 W  N 3 V = volumetric flow rate N = speed of rotation H p = pump head W = power required (prime mover)... More Pump “Laws”

22 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Pump Design Equation – Bernoulli Again

23 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Anatomy of Several Pump Types

24 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com DRIVE TYPE (electric motor, steam drive, gear driven, etc…) PUMP SHAFT & Seal CASING SUCTION DISCHARGE IMPELLER Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements

25 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Centrifugal Pump Elements

26 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements

27 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements

28 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Centrifugal Pump Elements

29 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com “Roots” Blower

30 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Gerotor Pump

31 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Vane Pump

32 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Silicon Micro-Compressor Design Concept

33 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com MEMS Magnetically Actuated Micropump

34 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Single and double Acting Piston Pumps

35 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Archimedes Screw Pump

36 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Multiple Screw Pump

37 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Conical Drag Pump

38 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Tesla “Drag” Pump

39 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Drag or Pos. Displacement “Screw” Pump

40 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Spiral “Viscous Drag” Pump

41 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Examples of Small Commercially Available and “Academic Research” Pumps Fans and Blowers

42 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical “Micro-Blower”

43 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Double Fan Blower

44 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Fan based “Micro-Blower”

45 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Sunon Blower

46 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Sunon Blower - Continued

47 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com High Volume - Low Pressure - Centrifugal Blower

48 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Vacuum Products

49 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Blower – Mesoscopics, Inc.

50 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Blower – Mesoscopics, Inc.

51 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Examples of Small Commercially Available and “Academic Research” Pumps Water Pumps

52 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Small Water Pump

53 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Diaphragm Water Pump

54 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Centrifugal Water Pump

55 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Gerotor Liquid Pump – Mesoscopics, Inc.

56 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Gerotor Liquid Pump – Mesoscopics, Inc.

57 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Implantable Artificial Heart Pump - Medtronic

58 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Examples of Small Commercially Available and “Academic Research” Pumps Exotic Turbine and Tesla Pumps

59 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Compressor

60 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Compressor - Continued

61 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Compressor - Continued

62 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Compressor - Continued

63 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Turbine

64 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Micro-Turbine

65 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Rotary “Tesla” Drag Style Pump

66 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Small Centrifugal Pump

67 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com “Shaft” Style Centrifugal Pump

68 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Examples of Small Commercially Available and “Academic Research” Pumps Small Piezo, Magnetic and Crank Actuated Diaphragm Pumps

69 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Magnetic Micropump - Shinano Kenshi Co., ltd.

70 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Magnetic Diaphragm Actuator for a Micro Pump

71 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Electromagnetic Actuation Diaphragm Pump

72 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Diaphragm Micropump

73 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Diaphragm Micropump

74 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Diaphragm Micro Pump

75 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Diaphragm Micropump Performance

76 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Yet Another Diaphragm Micro Pump

77 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Various Piezoelectric Pumps

78 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Typical Small Piezo Pump - Star-Micronics Corp.

79 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Derivation of a Simplified Piezo Pump Design Equation

80 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a Flapper Valve using flexPDE

81 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com 15, 27 and 35 mm Piezo Disks Piezo Disk Pump Elements

82 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Finite Element Model (FEA) of a Piezo Diaphragm using flexPDE

83 Nelson Research, Inc – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA USA aol.com Summary A variety of pumps suitable for transferring gas and liquids have been presented along with fluid dynamic operating equations. Some of these pumps are of normal scale and others are fabricated on a microfluidic – micropump scale. Depending on the application, any one of the pumps presented may be of practical value.


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