2Basic Elements of Music RhythmMelody (pitch)HarmonyTimbre (sound)Form (shape)
3FormForm—Organizational plan of a piece of music--how many motives, phrases, verses, etc.
4Basic Principles of Musical Organization Form is created through three techniques—Repetition Contrast Variation
5Repetition a a (repeated note for note) Silent Night, Holy Night Individual lines of a song can repeat -a a (repeated note for note)Silent Night, Holy Nightb b’ (slight variation)All is calm, all is bright.cRound yon Virgin, Mother and Child.Holy Infant so tender and mild.d eSleep in heavenly peace Sleep in heavenly peace
6Repetition Or entire sections of a song may repeat-- Each verse of “Silent Night” has the exact same melody just as “This Land is Your Land” does.Repetition provides a sense of familiarity, unity, and a feeling of continuity.But, too much repetition makes music easy to ignore; e.g., “Row, Row, Row Your Boat”
7ContrastContrast is created by changing the character of the music through creating a separate section.Intro to “Last Dance” vs. rest of song or “Oy, Abram.”Contrast provides a sense of variety.
8Sectional Form Pieces divided into logical units that have definite beginnings and endings.The flow of music is mildly interrupted by the end and beginning of sections.Cadences are the primary device for indicating these units or sections.Contrast can also be used to create divisions.Sectional FormPieces divided into logical units that have definite beginnings and endings
9Types of Sectional Forms StrophicThe same or similar music for each stanza or section. Much of folk and children’s music is strophic. There is no contrasting melody.E. g., “Silent Night” or “This Land is Your Land”VariationCombinesRepetition with contrastDevelopmentApplied toMusical Materials
10Types of Sectional Forms Verse/ChorusVariation of strophic form where chorus is inserted between verses. Chorus is marked by repeated lyrics and may or may not have same melody as verse.E.g., “This Land is Your Land”VariationCombinesRepetition with contrastDevelopmentApplied toMusical Materials
11Expanded Sectional Forms Sectional forms also include music that has two or more sections without repetition of melodic material.“Help Me Make It Through the Night”Verse Chorus Bridge“Crazy Train” Verse, Chorus, Bridge“Huachos” A B C
12South AmericaAndes Mountains—5500 miles long along western edge of SA—longest mountain range in the world.Indigenous peoples inhabited SA for 20,000 years.Incas were the predominant culture in the Andes from around 1450, until the European invasion of settlers around 1550.South America is a mix of mestizo, mulatto, and indigenous traditions and people.
13Music of the AndesAndean music is oldest music in Latin America and is made up of an intermingling of indigenous and European elements and instruments.It is played in a variety of settings—clubs, villages, homes, festivals, etc.Almost every municipality has its own band.It is also played around the world by groups ranging from itinerant street musicians to highly trained professionals.