2Guiding Questions How does Greek drama compare to our modern theater? How do the themes in plays from other times and cultures relate to issues of today?
3TSWBATAppreciate ancient Greek drama through study of a play by SophoclesEvaluate the cultural and historical context of Greek drama and its role in Greek society
4The Author- Sophocles The Pinnacle of Greek Tragedy Born in Athens 496BCEBorn in the town of ColonusLived to be 90Witnessed the rise and fall of the Greek Golden AgeGrew up during Persian WarsExceptionally talented ActorSophocles' work is considered the pinnacle of Greek tragedy. Born in near Athens in 496 BCE in the town of Colonus, in his ninety-year lifespan he witnessed the rise and fall of the Athenian Golden Age. Sophocles was the son of a wealthy manufacturer. He grew up during the Persian Wars, and was chosen to participate in the victory celebrations forthe Greek naval victory at Salamisin 480 BCE, an honor that suggests that the young Sophocles was particularly talented and handsome. Indeed, he is thought to have performed some of the roles in his early plays, but was unable to continue as an actor due to problems with his voice.
5Greek Theater- Use the lecture to answer these questions: Where were Greek tragedies staged?What did the stage look like?What kinds of props and scenery were used?When during the year were plays performed? When during the day?Who performed in them? What costumes did they wear?Who came to the plays? How did they behave? What were they looking for -- entertainment, knowledge, enlightenment?What kinds of issues were addressed in plays?What was the playwright's role in the performance?
9The Players Greek tragedy and comedy originated with the chorus the most important part of the performance space was the orchestraA tragic chorus consisted of 12 or 15 dancers (choreuts),Athenians were taught to sing and dance from a very early age.The effort of dancing and singing through three tragedies and a satyr play was likened to that of competing in the Olympic Games.Greek tragedy and comedy originated with the chorusthe most important part of the performance space was the orchestra,the orchestra, which means 'a place for dancing' (orchesis).A tragic chorus consisted of 12 or 15 dancers (choreuts), who may have been young men just about to enter military service after some years of training. Athenians were taught to sing and dance from a very early age. The effort of dancing and singing through three tragedies and a satyr play was likened to that of competing in the Olympic Games.
10ActorsIn contrast with the chorus of 12 or 15, there were only three actors in fifth-century Athenian tragedy.The original word for 'actor' was hypokrites, meaning 'answerer,' for the actor answered the chorus.Thespis is said to have introduced (and been) the first actor, later called protagonistes (literally 'first competitor').The introduction of a second actor (deuteragonistes) is attributed to Aeschylus andthe third (tritagonistes) to Sophocles.In contrast with the chorus of 12 or 15, there were only three actors in fifth-century Athenian tragedy.The original word for 'actor' was hypokrites, meaning 'answerer,' for the actor answered the chorus.Thespis is said to have introduced (and been) the first actor, later called protagonistes (literally 'first competitor').The introduction of a second actor (deuteragonistes) is attributed to Aeschylus andthe third (tritagonistes) to Sophocles. There are no one-actor plays remaining to us, though Aeschylus' earliest play, Persians, requires only two actors.
11Actors continuedEach actor would undertake to play several different rolesIt is possible to divide the speaking parts in a Greek tragedy up by determining which characters were in the same scene.Often the division of roles had some thematic significance relevant to the play. Very occasionally a single role might be divided between two or more actors, as in Sophocles' Oedipus at ColonusOrdinarily each actor would undertake to play several different roles, and it is usually possible to divide the speaking parts in a Greek tragedy up by determining which characters were in the same scene. Often the division of roles had some thematic significance relevant to the play. We know that the audience could tell one actor from another, despite wearing a mask and costume, because a prize for the best actor was introduced in 449 BCE. Very occasionally a single role might be divided between two or more actors, as in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus
12MasksThe large size of the theatre (in its final form it seated 20,000 people) andthe distance of even the nearest spectators from the performers (more than 10 meters)dictated a non-naturalistic approach to acting.All gestures had to be large and definite so as to 'read' from the back rows.Facial expression would have been invisible to all but the closest members of the audience; the masks worn by the actors looked more 'natural' than bare faces in the Theatre of Dionysos.The masks of tragedy were of an ordinary, face-fitting size, with wigs attached, and open mouths to allow clear speech.The large size of the theatre (in its final form it seated 20,000 people) and the distance of even the nearest spectators from the performers (more than 10 meters) dictated a non-naturalistic approach to acting. All gestures had to be large and definite so as to 'read' from the back rows. Facial expression would have been invisible to all but the closest members of the audience; the masks worn by the actors looked more 'natural' than bare faces in the Theatre of Dionysos. The masks of tragedy were of an ordinary, face-fitting size, with wigs attached, and open mouths to allow clear speech. Contrary to some later theories, there were no 'megaphones' in the masks, and their decoration and expression was quite subtle, as vase paintings from the 5th and 4th centuries attest
13Structure of Greek Play- Know and be able to identify the following: The Greek Chorus and its various functions (with an example of each)Greek Theater, its structure and layoutEpisodeAnagnorisisCatharsisDeus ex MachinaPeripeteiaStichomythiaDramatic IronyPathos (2 examples)Tragedy, its characteristicsTragedyTragic hero, his/her characteristicsHamartiaHubris
14Reflect on the underlying themes of the drama: the interlocking conflicts between men and women,age and youth,society and the individual,human justice and divine law,the obligations we owe to the living and the dead
15SettingThe drama begins at dawn, after a night in which there has been a war in Thebes between armies led by the two sons of Oedipus. Keep in mind that the Greek theater was in the open air, and that the first performances of the day would begin at daybreak. Thus, imagine that the time of day of the setting would be identical to the performance time.
161-116As you read the first scene, consider the gravity of the city's condition and how aware Antigone seems of it.Throughout the play, Antigone and Creon will talk much about friends and enemies. Think about what each means by these terms. In general, Antigone and Creon tend to use the same words but mean different things by them. For example, consider Antigone's reference to being a "traitor" (57). This is a political term; does Antigone mean a traitor to the city, or to something else? Compare with Creon (580).Why does Antigone assume that Creon's order is directed against her and Ismene? When Creon appears later, consider whether his conduct and language in fact supports her assumption.Do you sympathize at all with Ismene's caution? Does Antigone treat her fairly?Why is Antigone so concerned with glory (113)? Should she be?How old do you think Antigone is?
17After the initial dialogue the Chorus emerges for their first choral ode, which concerns the previous night's battle. Contrast the picture of Polynices drawn there with Antigone's earlier discussion of her brother; does your opinion of him, and of Antigone's position, change at all?The chorus evokes Dionysus (171), the first of several times this god is mentioned. Why should the chorus call upon Dionysus? Look up the name if you need to.
18Creon enters. It is very important that you do not project Creon's later conduct back into his first speech. Read this speech carefully, consider his values and beliefs, and ask yourself whether there is anything wrong with his principles, whether in Greek terms or your own. Later, compare Creon's subsequent actions with the principles he articulates here.Throughout this scene, pay close attention to the assumptions Creon makes about gender.When Creon talks about the gods and the law (317), is he talking about the same types of gods as Antigone does?
19This is perhaps the most famous choral ode in Greek tragedy. What image of man does this ode present? In this vision, what is human greatness? What are the limits of human ability and action? When can a daring man get into trouble?Choral odes often generalize a given problem specific to the play's action into a statement about human life as a whole. Is that the case here? If so, then is the chorus alluding to Antigone, or to Creon, or to both?
20417-655 Why is Creon so surprised when the Sentry brings in Antigone? Antigone is compared to a mother bird (471), not the last time she is referred to as maternal in this play. Is there anything strange or ironic about Antigone being represented as a mother?Antigone's defense to Creon ( ) is very important, so read it carefully.Ismene defends Antigone and asks Creon how he could kill his own son's bride (641). Has there been any reference to this relationship before?
21Contrast this stasimon with the previous one. Is this ode's thought and tone similar or different? What, if anything, has changed?
22Compare the Creon in this scene with the one who first entered the play. Has he changed at all in language or conduct?To what does Haemon appeal in his attempt to save Antigone?Does Haemon threaten his father, as Creon thinks (842)?Why does Creon chose the particular method of execution that he does (870-8)? What does it say about him?
23879-94The ancient Greeks had two words for "love"; philia, meaning something like "friendship", and eros, which has more to do with passion. When the chorus talks about "love" in the ode, which of the two do they mean? And why is the chorus generalizing about love here?
24Note the chorus' reference to Antigone's "bridal vault" (899). What do they mean by referring to a wedding chamber? This will be an important image in the last part of the play. Antigone becomes a "Bride of Death" (or "Bride of Hades“ Demeter and Hades).How would you characterize the chorus' exchange with Antigone here?Consider Antigone's speech which begins at line 978. Is this speech consistent with what she has argued before?Is Antigone's faith in the gods wavering here?
25Consider what these myths have in common with each other, and with the story of the play at this point.
26What does the failure of Tiresias' sacrifice have to do with Polynices and Antigone?What, specifically, in Tiresias' warnings leads Creon to change his mind?
27Why does the chorus call on Dionysus in this ode?
281273-EndWhy does Antigone chose to commit suicide? Does it suggest her mother's death, or is there an important difference?Creon's wife is only on stage momentarily, yet she plays a key role in Creon's disaster. What does her suicide mean to him?
29Is Creon a tragic figure? Is Creon a tragic figure? Do you feel sympathy for him at the end as someone who initially tried to do good yet was overwhelmed by circumstance, or do you believe that he is a bullying, misogynistic control-freak who gets what he deserves? Try to come up with arguments for both sides. Could the play have been called Creon, instead?
30AntigoneConversely, what, specifically, makes Antigone a tragic figure? Think about what, exactly, you mean by such words as "tragedy" and "tragic".
31What do you think?Debate Antigone's choice, whether it betrays a tragic pride and inflexibility or demonstrates an heroic dedication to virtue.
32Contemporary linksComment on the relevance of this ancient play to contemporary life. When in recent history have individuals been forced to choose between the law and human rights?
33Your lifeWhen in your own life have you faced a choice like Antigone's, a choice between obedience to authority and remaining true to your conscience?