2Ubiquitous Computing"Ubiquitous Computing is fundamentally characterized by the connection of things in the world with computation“ (Mark Weiser)
3Terminology Ubiquitous Swedish: “allestädes närvarande” existing or being everywhere at the same time : constantly encountered : widespreadomnipresent, allover, universal, constantly availablepervasive to the point of subconscious
4Ubiquitous ComputingCoined by Mark Weiser and researchers at Xerox Palo Alto in the late 80s.Computers as we know them will be replaced by a multitude of networked computing devices embedded in our environments, and these devices will be invisible in the sense of not being perceived as computers.Ubiquitous computing pushes the user interface away from the desktop and into our everyday environments.
5Ubiquitous Computing Mark Weiser’s vision (1991) “The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” (Weiser)
6Ubiquitous ComputingIn short about what happens when we become surrounded by IT-artefacts in our daily and working livesDistributed interactive computing permeating the worldPerspectivesComputer ScienceSociological ScienceInteraction Design
7History of Interaction Era 1: Mainframes (past)Central, “powerful” and expensive computerMany users access a single computer from “dumb” terminalsUsed for enterprise data processingCobol, data bases, etc..Computer not easily accessible
8History of Interaction Era II: Personal computers (present)“Powerful” and relatively inexpensive computersAt least one machine per userUsed for word processing, personal productivity applications, video, audio etcPowerpoint, MS Word, Web browser etc..Computer still not that accessible
9History of Interaction Era III: Post-PC (future)Explosion in number and variety of computing devicesA number of devices/machines share one userDevices (inexpensive) vary in complexity and functionUsed to make “our lives better”Computers become “invisible”
10Three, or Four, Waves Mainframe computing (60’s-70’s) massive computers to execute big data processing applicationsvery few computers in the worldDesktop computing (80’s-90’s)one computer at every desk to help in business-related activitiescomputers connected in intranets to a massive global network (internet), all wiredUbiquitous computing (00’s-?)tens/hundreds of computing devices in every room/person, becoming “invisible” and part of the environmentWANs, LANs, PANs – networking in small spacesCloud computing as a fourth wave, see Google Tech Talk.
12Visions of the Future The Office of the Professional before the mouseOffice OfTheProfessional.wmvWeiser’s vision:UbiCompIntro.movUbiCompClose.movPlayful Interaction in recent visionsplayful_interaction.avi
14UbiComp enabling technologies Processingcheaper, faster, smaller, more energy efficientStoragebig and fastNetworkingglobal, local, ad- hoc, low- power, high bandwidth, low latenciesDisplaysprojection, flexible materials, power consumption
15* Embedded sensor networks Sensors:- in everyday environments- on people- on artefactsSensor fusion: combining different data and placements to gather context
16Embedded ComputersComputers are becoming smaller and cheaper ->Everyday things will to a higher extent be “computerized”.Analogy: Electric motors used to be large, powering several appliances. They are nowadays embedded in the devices and invisible, so that the user sees a task-specific tool and not the technology of motors. Computers as well as motors are enablers and infrastructure. (Donald Norman)
18Defining ContextInformation used to characterize the situation of an entityEntity - person, place or object relevant to the interaction between a human and some computational service
19Context and location Awareness What if your device knew from the time you approached or picked it up:WHO you are (user aware).WHERE you are (location aware).WHAT is going on around you (environment aware).
20* Context-aware computing “computer-based devices [that] reach out into the real world through sensors” [Gellerson].“A system is context-aware if it uses context to provide relevant information and/or services to the user, where relevancy depends on the user’s task.” [Dey & Abowd, 1999].
21Computers that know where you are Examples Location-Aware SystemsComputers that know where you areExamplesHelp guide blind person through an areaPut location tracking on buses so you will know when next one is comingAttach reminders to places, like "Next time I am near grocery store remind me to…“
22Sample Context-Aware Apps ParcTabs and Active Badges Xerox PARCWant, Schilit, et alActive BadgeOlivetti / AT&THopper, Harter, et al
23Tangible interfaces Most HC interaction is done through a big glass tubepressing keys and moving a mouseHuman-human interaction uses many more channels
24* Tangible computingInput, data, output and networking contained and accessed within the same tangible artefactPaper, cups, pens, umbrellas or specially designed artefactsTangible objects as active entities that respond to the environment, to user manipulation and people’s activities in generalBuilding on the users’ cognitive abilities
25Allow users to “grasp and manipulate” bits by coupling the bits with everyday things Bridge cyberspace and physical spaceBridge foreground and background of human activitiesTurn the physical world into the interface
26Tangible Computing Bishop’s Marble Answering Machine physical interaction with digital information
27* Social computingIncorporating understandings of the social world into interactive systemsSocial traces left by people on objects or placesMobile social networks between co-located acquaintancesenhancing user awareness by providing them information about others and their activity
28* Augmented realitySuperimposing a digital world upon the real oneUser experiences both as co-existing parts of the same realityUser is able to interact with their combination in real timeInterfaces:3D computer graphics seen through transparent head-mounted displays or augmented glassesSpatialised audio cues heard through headphones
29“Virtual reality” cuts you off from real world * Augmented reality“Virtual reality” cuts you off from real worldAugmented reality adds interaction on top of real worldExamples:superimposing street names on windshield while driving a carMixed-reality: digital world not directly overlaid on the physical one but still presented as part of the same reality, f.ex.with both realities displayed on the screen of hand-held device)
32* Wearable computingComputing incorporated into clothingMake use of body-related information or interaction forms to control processes : - body movements - biometricsEmbedded displays (e.g. glasses)
33Calm Technology Encalms and Informs The users remain serene and in controlEngages our peripheral attentionAllows us to attune to more thingsThe user is largely unaware of interacting with a computing or communication device.Moves easily from center to periphery and backRecenter to take controlEx: Car engine; when not OK we notice it
34Dangling String By Natalie Jeremijenko, Xerox PARC bridging physical and virtualdisplays activity level on computer networkVision, sound and touch
35UC IssuesHow can we enhance [everyday] activities by connecting them to a computational infrastructure?How can we design IT-artefacts and IT-environments using computational technology as a material?What computational infrastructure do we need?
36UC Issues HCI Security & Privacy how to address many computers (without going insane)Security & PrivacyWireless data, overcoming surveillanceCommunications & NetworkingHome Networks, Personal Area Networks, Ad-hoc NetworksOperating SystemsMust fit in small memories, energy awareHardware DesignSmall size, low weight, low power, harsh environmentsSoftware DesignCope with large variation in hardware, partition the code to be easily customized in different environments
37Open Research Challenges People Issues Avoiding embarrassing situationsActive Badges + bathroomsInconvenient phone forwardingAvoiding dangerous situationsNeed to take into consideration cost of mistakeSmoke alarms when cookingLights that turn off when you're still thereWoman locked in "smart toilet stall"Will adding more context really help here?
38RecapUbiquitous Computing concerns how computational technology becomes a natural part of our livesInvolves both technology and interaction designMoves away from traditional desktop interactionComputation becomes embedded in the environment
39Design Perspective Toward a hybrid design Combine unique capabilities of computer technology with properties of physical environmentsFocus on foreground activity: how people interact with their designed environment – preserve familiarity and accustomed useInteraction with Physical Artefacts / EnvironmentsPhysical/Tangible InteractionPhysical affordances: suggesting and guiding actionDistributed interaction: actions across artefacts / spaceSpatial/ambient interactionSpatial organisation of action/communicationAmbient interaction: “spatial attention model”
40Technical Perspective Computers in the BackgroundComputers as secondary artefacts (embedded/situated)Embedded: (only a) part of some other artefactSituated: meaningfully placed, designed for specific context (“context-made” rather than “context-aware”)The Environment is the InterfaceBuild upon affordances of the primary artefact or environmentsDon’t break with accustomed uses and familiar conceptsPhysical I/O (sensors/actuators) to tie computers to entities in the physical environmentNetworking to enable coherent interactionSpatial interaction, proximate networking, etcAllow for new interactions/relationships across parts of the environment