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Introduction to Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing Dr. Tarek Sheltami COE 482.

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1 Introduction to Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing Dr. Tarek Sheltami COE 482

2 Outline A technology trying to embed the PCs into everyday objects to make the PCs invisible. A technology trying to embed the PCs into everyday objects to make the PCs invisible. Ubiquitous: Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time (omnipresent). Ubiquitous: Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time (omnipresent). Later this was renamed as pervasive computing. Later this was renamed as pervasive computing. Pervasive: Capability to spread through ought. Pervasive: Capability to spread through ought. Meaning Spreading the computation power into everything around us. Meaning Spreading the computation power into everything around us. The name ubiquitous computing was coined by Mark Weiser (Father of Ubiquitous Computing). The name ubiquitous computing was coined by Mark Weiser (Father of Ubiquitous Computing). 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web2

3 The Major Trends in Computing Mainframe (Past) 1:N one computer shared by many people Mainframe (Past) 1:N one computer shared by many people Personal Computer (Present) 1:1 one computer, one person   N:1 *Internet - Widespread Distributed Computing* Ubiquitous N k :1 Computing many computers shared by each one of us 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web3

4 Phase I - The Mainframe Era Computers were a scarce resource run by experts behind closed doors. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web4

5 Phase II - The PC Era In 1984 the number of people using PCs surpassed that of people using mainframe computers. In 1984 the number of people using PCs surpassed that of people using mainframe computers. PC Era: You have your computer, it contains your stuff, and you interact directly and deeply with it. PC Era: You have your computer, it contains your stuff, and you interact directly and deeply with it. The PC is most analogous to the automobile. The PC is most analogous to the automobile. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web5

6 Transition Phase - The Internet The Internet brings together elements of the mainframe era and the PC era.  Client = PC Server = Mainframe 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web6

7 Phase III - The UC Era The UC era will have lots of computers shared by each one of us. The UC era will have lots of computers shared by each one of us. UC is fundamentally characterized by the connection of things in the world with computation. UC is fundamentally characterized by the connection of things in the world with computation. Frequently used related terms: Pervasive computing, Wearable computers, Intelligent environment, Things That Think (T³), Wearware, Personal Area Networking (PAN).[3] 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web7

8 UC - Definition Elements that define ubiquitous computing:[4] 1) Ubiquity/Pervasiveness – lots of devices 2) Connectedness – the devices are networked 3) Context-awareness – the system is aware of the context of users 4) Invisibility – device effectively becomes invisible 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web8

9 UC – How To Understand It UC goal: enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user. UC goal: enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user. Ubiquity Ubiquity – Everywhere – Adaptation to environment – Intuitive, transparent, natural interfaces 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web9

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11 Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing Pervasive (or ubiquitous) computing which is a concept based on a vision described by Mark Weiser in Pervasive (or ubiquitous) computing which is a concept based on a vision described by Mark Weiser in Move beyond desktop machine Move beyond desktop machine Ubiquitous computing environments involve the interaction, coordination, and cooperation of numerous, casually accessible, and often invisible computing devices. Ubiquitous computing environments involve the interaction, coordination, and cooperation of numerous, casually accessible, and often invisible computing devices. Computing is embedded everywhere in the environment Computing is embedded everywhere in the environment 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web11

12 Ubicomp Notions The "authorized access to anytime-anywhere-any device-any network-any data" “Invisible” resources “Invisible” resources it is computation that's freely available everywhere Machines sense users’ presence and act accordingly Machines sense users’ presence and act accordingly 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web12

13 BEGINNINGS OF UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING While working atXEROX Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) as Chief Technologist, Weiser envisioned the third era of computing in Weiser produced three types of wirelesscomputing devices Tabs pads boards. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web13

14 Pervasive computing technologies Pervasive computing involves three converging areas of ICT computing (‘devices’) - PCS devices are likely to assume many different forms and sizes, from handheld units (similar to mobile phones)to near-invisible devices set into ‘everyday’ objects (like furniture and clothing). Communications (‘connectivity’)- This can be achieved via both wired (such as Broadband (ADSL) or Ethernet) and wireless networking technologies (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) ‘user interfaces’- new user interfaces are being developed that will be capable of sensing and supplying more information about users, and the broader environment, to the computer for processing 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web14

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16 Embedded Technology is the process of introducing computing power to various appliances. is the process of introducing computing power to various appliances. Computers are hidden in numerous information appliances which we use in our day-to-day life. Computers are hidden in numerous information appliances which we use in our day-to-day life. common scenario posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably-tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food. common scenario posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably-tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web16

17 Applications of Ubicomp Health care home care transport environmental monitoring 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web17

18 1. Health care Pervasive computing offers opportunities for future healthcare provision both for treating and managing disease, and for patient administration remote sensors and monitoring technology might allow the continuous capture and analysis of patients’ physiological data Medical staff could be immediately alerted to any detected irregularities 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web18

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20 2. Environmental monitoring Pervasive computing provides improved methods to monitor the environment It will allow for continuous realtime data collection and analysis via remote, wireless devices this poses significant challenges for PCS developers. Devices may be required to withstand harsh environmental conditions (such as heat, cold and humidity 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web20

21 3. 3. Intelligent transport systems Such systems seek to bring together information and telecommunications technologies in a collaborative scheme to improve the safety, efficiency and productivity of transport networks Electronic devices could be directly integrated into the transport infrastructure, and into vehicles themselves, with the aim of better monitoring and managing the movement of vehicles within road, rail, air and sea transport systems. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web21

22 Challenges The “Accidentally” Smart Environment Impromptu Interoperability No Systems Administrator Social Implications of Aware Technologies Reliability Inference in the Presence of Ambiguity 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web22

23 1. 1. The “Accidentally” Smart Environment If you walk into an environment anywhere in the world, you would probably not find an infrastructure suitable for ubiquitous computing Instead, you would find an infrastructure suited towards established and well-grounded technologies the environments of users must be “upgraded,” to support this new technology 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web23

24 2. 2. Impromptu Interoperability Ubiquitous computing must not just have interoperable devices, they must have impromptu interoperability – the ability to interconnect and communicate with little or no advance planning. This presents a problem because every device must be written to understand the software of every other device 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web24

25 3. 3. Social Implications of Aware Technologies Pervasive computing systems may have implications for privacy, security and safety, as a result of their ability to: gather sensitive data, for example on users' everyday interactions, movements, preferences and attitudes, without user intervention or consent The advent of pervasive computing may mean that data can be collected without a person’s knowledge or consent. Some argue that this could violate existing data protection law 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web25

26 4. 4. Reliability Since ubiquitous computing devices will be everywhere, it makes sense for them to be reliable. Owners and developers will not want to be constantly bombarded by failing devices or insecure software. 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web26

27 CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE Ubiquitous computing is the next generation computing environments with information & communication technology everywhere, for everyone, at all times. Ubiquitous computing is the next generation computing environments with information & communication technology everywhere, for everyone, at all times. Information and communication technology will be an integrated part of our environments Information and communication technology will be an integrated part of our environments 5/1/2015 A summary of PPTs in the web27


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