3Climatewinter temperatures don't reach above 20° F and average -20° to -30°F. Endless hours darkness settle in and the winds blow even harder. The snow that falls is blown off the high plateaus and collects in the valleys. Animals hunker down, able to find only enough food to keep warm.
4SoilThe vegetation in the Alpine and Tundra biomes is rather limited. This limitation is caused by the poor quality of the soil of these areas. In the Tundra is very low in nutrients and minerals except for when the soil can obtain nutrients from animal droppings.
5SunlightPlants need warmth and sunlight to grow and reproduce. In the Arctic tundra, warmth and sunlight are in short supply, even in the summer. The ground is frequently covered with snow until June, and the Sun is always low in the sky.
6Plant AdaptationTundra plants are small (usually less than 12 inches tall) and low-growing due to lack of nutrients, because being close to the ground helps keep the plants from freezing, and because the roots cannot penetrate the permafrost.Plants are dark in color—some are even red—this helps them absorb solar heat.Some plants are covered with hair which helps keep them warm.Some plants grow in clumps to protect one another from the wind and cold.Some plants have dish-like flowers that follow the sun, focusing more solar heat on the center of the flower, helping the plant stay warm.
7BearberryThe bearberry plant is a very small evergreen that can only grow up to 10 inches off the ground. It's name actually matches its description because bears eat the 3/8" diameter berries. Also, something interesting about the plant is that the whole plant can be used in some way. Like the berries, eaten, the leaves can be used as a tea to help with kidney/bladder problems,the roots can also be used for tea, but to help constant coughing, and the stem, used to help women recover faster after childbirth. It is also kept from the cold because of its small hairs on it and also because it lays low on the ground so it doesn't get hit as much from the cold winds.
8The Pasque FlowerThe Pasque Flower is a low-growing plant, like most in the Tundra, and grows about half a foot or less above the ground. Also, this flower isn't important in any animals diet. The Pasque also has its seeds much like the strawberry's and is on the side of its fruit that can help with some eye problems like cataracts. The Pasque flower is South Dakota's state flower and there is popular to have in gardens.
9Diamond Leaf WillowThis particular Willow can grow up to 30ft. in nearly all the biomes but the Tundra. In the Tundra, it only grows a few inches and also lays low like the bearberry plant. But unlike the bearberry, the willow has white flowers that when bloomed, make a "white carpet" of the plant. This oak is mainly used in medicine and some food because of its rich Vitamin C, having 10x more then oranges. Also, because of the high vitamin C it is a favored food for Caribou and musk-oxes. problems, or even a small stomach ache, you can use the leaves to brew a tea that if made right, won't be poisonous.
10The Labrador TeaThe Labrador Tea is a plant that mostly grows in the Southern part of the Tundra and there can grow up to about 5 feet, but in the northern Tundra, when they are found, they stay close to the ground and uneaten by most animals because they can be poisonous if eaten, even though they are rich in Vitamin C. Yet, even though they are poisonous, bees still pollinate the flower, which helps out if people collect specimens for medical purposes. These plants help if you have a bad cough, skin
11LichenOne of the most common plants in the Tundra are lichen. Lichen is a decomposer made of plants and fungus working together. Lichen can live in the Tundra because they can be close to the ground and can have short roots. Lichen also grows mainly on rock and plants that are starting to decay or break down, usually from ice wedging. The lichen can make food when the temperature is down and even if there is barely any light. Lichen is eaten by reindeer and caribou during the coldest of months.
12Cotton Surprisingly, there is cotton in the Tundra. It is spread from the migratory birds that had seeds stuck to them, or just blown from the wind, and spread to the Tundra or other northern biomes. Cotton is a plants that can be sewn into clothes or other cloth items and is essential to humans, mainly for clothes.
13Cushion Plant The cushion plant is a small plant that grows in tight clumps. They adapted to the Tundra environment in many ways that help their survival in the cold, harsh Tundra winds. Cushion plants are kind of look like moss.
14Arctic PoppyThe Arctic Poppy is yet another flower that adapted to the Tundra climate. The poppy adapted by adding the ability of the plant moving with the sun and cupping the petals to increase the amount of sunlight going to the middle of the flower.
16Grizzly bear special adaption: physical strength very fast can drive away predators (other bears) easilyhas really thick fur for really really cold climate.
17Black Bear special adaption: sharp claws and sharp teeth scare away predators easilycan eat any type of foodcan survive extreme conditions
18arctic ground squirrels special adaption:live in colonieseat all summer and hibernate all winterhave small size so they can hide from predatorslack of trees help them warn their colonies of predators
19Musk Ox special adaption: long fur coats always travel in 10 or 20 so they can circle around the young onescan grow a under coat in harsh climatecan give off musky smell when attacked
20Lemmings special adaption: small bodies to hide and conserve heat sharp teeththick furcan bury under snow to hide
21Polar Bears special adaption: have two layers of fur to keep warm in harsh cold climateblack skin to absorb heatsharp claws and teeth to catch fish and other foodwebbed feet to help swim
22Arctic Foxes special adaption: really furry paws so when going in the snow it will keep warmwhite long camouflage fur to hide from predatorscan find food really easilycan use a tail as its muffler so the cold air will not get into it’s ears
23Wolverines special adaption: large teeth and powerful jaws can scare away predators by spraying out muskthick brown fur to stay warmgood climbers so they can pounce on their prey
25DecomposerThis is lichen it is a decomposer it also a plays a really big role in the food chain at the very bottom as the decomposer and also a food source to reindeer/caribou. It also breaks down dead animals or dead anything
26The location of the tundra The tundra is found at the top of the world where it is really cold. A.K.A Antarctica 90,90
27The foundation of the tundra THE tundra is mostly cold for the year. No trees can grow. Bare and sometimes rocky ground.
28How we affect the tundra We affect the tundra by air pollution and water pollution. Buildings.
29Weather patternsIt is really dry because all the cold air makes it dry. The air pressure is 380 mm.
30How the weather patterns impact animals Since it is really cold animals they hibernate underground and they have to get there food in the summer
31Weather/ climateIn tundra it Is really cold. In the summer the hottest it gets is 30 F to 40 F. In the winter it averages around -30 F to -40 F. The coldest it has ever gotten is -94 F.