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Tundra Located north of the Arctic Circle
Tundra Frigid temperatures in the winter - with little or no sunlight. Temperatures range from 0 to 10 C year round! Precipitation less than 100 mm (10 cm) per year The frozen desert!
Summer in the tundra A few weeks above freezing – short summers! 24 hours of daylight/day – Plants must act fast!
Tundra - conditions Only the top few centimeters of soil thaw Underneath = permafrost, a layer of soil that is permanently frozen Trees cannot grow here
Tundra Dominated by tough grasses, shrubs, lichens and herbs.
Tundra Dotted with bogs and swamps during summer Wet areas = breeding grounds for swarming insects such as……..
And the birds that eat them
And the birds that eat other things
Vegetation of the Tundra Mosses and lichens Grow without soil
Vegetation - adaptations Plants– very shallow roots – Help anchor them against the icy winds
Vegetation of the Tundra Examples: Campion and gentian
Vegetation of the Tundra Grow close to the ground – Absorb heat from the soil – Keeps out of the wind
Woody plants and perennials Willow and juniper – but in dwarf forms Grow flat or along the ground
Animals of the Tundra Abundant food – especially insects NO reptiles or amphibians!
Animal adaptations Burrow underground Camouflage Well insulated! Avoid bad conditions by – Migration – Hibernation
The tundra swan
Migrates : Breeds in the tundra during the summer
Animals of the Tundra Caribou Migrate throughout the tundra in search of food and water
Animals of the Tundra Hunters - wolves, ermine, fox, owl – camouflage!
Grows two layers of fur – one short and one long Air gets trapped in the short layer of fur and is warmed by the body The trapped air acts as insulation The long fur protects against wind and water
Musk ox Layer of fat Hooves that are large and hard to break through ice.
The Musk Ox – leftover from the ice age
The Musk Ox (from Planet Earth)
lemmings Small rodents Can give birth every 5 weeks! Live in burrows under or in the snow in winter
lemmings Food for plenty of predators! ……..like the ermine But – don’t always believe what you hear!
Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes Relatively simple food chains – easy to disrupt Land is easily damaged and slow to recover
Oil – Prudhoe Bay in northern Alaska
Oil exploration Transportation damages the permafrost
Pollution Caused by spills, leaks of oil or other toxic materials
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