www.soran.edu.iq There are two different types of Tundra Biomes: The Arctic/Polar Tundra: Found near the north and south polar regions. A young biome that was created in Pleistocene Eocene. The Alpine Tundra: Found on mountainsides and high-elevation plateaus Both types of tundra are not restricted to any specific region or zone In alpine biomes angiosperm plants is more than other. Arctic tundra biomes is more wide than alpine tundra.
www.soran.edu.iq Specific Traits of the Polar Tundra Found in the Northern Hemisphere Makes up 5.5% of the earth’s total surface Lies north of 70 degrees North latitude – some tundra is found on islands as far north as 55 degrees South Is very dry and gets up to 4-20 inches of precipitation each year, but mostly in the from of snow. Much of it is compared to a desert because it gets less than 10 inches of rain a year.
www.soran.edu.iq Specific Traits of the Alpine Tundra Absolutely no trees can grow here because of the elevation being so high. The growing season is only about 180 days Is usually found at an altitude of 10,000 feet or higher. Some tundra can even be found near the equator if the mountains are high enough (kilimanjaro) There are only warm blooded animals in the alpine tundra
www.soran.edu.iq Tundra Climate The Tundra has freezing winter temperatures and cool, short summers. In terms of precipitation, drought-like conditions are the usual. There is a layer of frozen soil called permafrost which is frozen all year round. Summer temperatures remain below 10 degrees Celsius and in the winter temperatures can drop below -56 degrees Celsius.
www.soran.edu.iq General Latitude The tundra stretches between the latitude known as the tree line, which is the farthest extent to which trees can grow, and the latitude where snow and ice cover becomes permanent, preventing plant growth.
www.soran.edu.iq Flora The Polar tundra is characterized by low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, grasses, lichen, arctic willow, and caribou moss. The Alpine tundra is characterized by tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, and heaths.
www.soran.edu.iq Fauna The fauna in the Polar Tundra consists of lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares, squirrels, arctic foxes, wolves, polar bears, ravens, caribou, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, tems, snow birds, and various species of gulls, mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, black flies, and arctic bumble bees, cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout.
www.soran.edu.iq Fauna The fauna in the Alpine Tundra consists of pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk, grouse like birds, springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies.
www.soran.edu.iq Main Species Caribou Caribou Moss Lichen
www.soran.edu.iq Main Species Arctic Hare Arctic Fox
www.soran.edu.iq Flora Adaptations Adapted their life cycles to be completed in a single summer season. Some grow very low to the ground to protect from frost damage. Some grow horizontally and send up many branches to keep away from drying winds and still absorb as much sunlight as possible. They group together to resist cold temperatures and be protected form the snow. Many of them develop thick, leathery or waxy leaves that prevent moisture loss. Some grow hairs along the stems, leaves, and flowers to hold heat and protect against the wind.
www.soran.edu.iq Fauna Adaptations The most common adaption is a thick layer of fur or feathers to hold the heat close to their bodies. Some of the animals fur turns white during the winter to hide in the snow and protect them from predators. Many large animals have compact body shapes that help them retain more heat than if their bodies were long and thin. Many animals avoid the cold by migrating and some animals build up a layer of fat over the summer, which provide energy and food while also keeping them warm during the harsh winters. Some may burrow into the snow to avoid harsh, frigid tempertures and winds.
www.soran.edu.iq Map of Tundra Distribution Alpine Tundra Map Arctic/Polar Tundra Map
www.soran.edu.iq General Climate The taiga is a wet subarctic forest that begins where the Tundra ends. The taiga climate is dominated by cold arctic air. Because of earth's tilt, the taiga is turned away from the sun in the winter. Therefore, less of the sun's radiation reaches the ground to warm it up. Winters are long, cold and dark with lots of snow that lasts for six to seven months. Summer is a rainy, hot and short season in the taiga; when the daylight can be up to 20 hours long. Fall is the shortest season and spring brings flowers, the frozen ponds melt, and the animals come out from hibernation.
www.soran.edu.iq General Climate The taiga climate has an average annual rainfall of 12 - 33 inches. The average precipitation for the summer is between 10-20 inches. The average precipitation for the winter is between 20-40 inches. The type of precipitation that falls in the taiga climate are rain in summer and mostly snow in winter. Winter's LOW is -65°F. Winter's HIGH is 30° F. Summer's LOW is 30° F. Summer's HIGH is 70° F. The latitude range is between 50°-60° North latitude.
www.soran.edu.iq Flora There are two major types of taiga, closed forest, consisting of many closely-spaced trees with mossy ground cover, and lichen woodland, with trees that are farther-spaced and lichen ground cover. The forests of the taiga are coniferous, dominated by larch, spruce, fir, and pine. Evergreen species in the taiga (spruce, fir, and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters, though larch, the most cold-tolerant of all trees, is deciduous. Jack Pine have cones which only open to release their seed after a fire, dispersing their seeds onto the newly cleared ground.
www.soran.edu.iq Fauna Some types of adaptations in the animals are migration, heavier coats of fur, and some change color, such as the snow-shoe rabbit. Mice and moles live in tunnels under the snow. Some animals that live in the taiga are bears, badger, beavers, reindeer, foxes, wolverine and squirrels. Many birds migrate to the taiga during the spring because there are so many insects to feed on after the snow melts.
www.soran.edu.iq Where’s the Taiga Biome located?
www.soran.edu.iq Plants in the Taiga White Poplar Eastern Red Cedar Jack Pine White Spruce Black Spruce
Adaptations Animal adaptations: Most animals migrate to warmer climates once the cold weather climates set in. Some animals have adapted by hibernating when temperatures drop. Other animals have adapted by producing a layer of insulating feathers or fur to protect them from the cold. Plant Adaptations: Evergreens use a wide variety of physical adaptations. Some of these adaptations include their shape, leaf type, root system, and color. Lichens and mosses, but most plants are coniferous trees like Pine, White Spruce, Hemlock, and Douglas fir. There are not a lot of species of plants in the taiga because of the harsh conditions. Cell content sugar is high to protect plants against freezing.