2Jacksonian EraThe changing character of American politics in “the age of the common man” was characterized by:Heightened emphasis on equality in the political process for adult white malesThe rise of interest group politics and sectional issuesA changing style of campaigningIncreased voter participation
3Andrew Jackson personified the “democratic spirit” of the age of challenging the economic elite and rewarding campaign supporters with public office (known as Spoils System)The Federalist Party disappeared and new political parties, the Whigs and Know-Nothings, were organized in opposition to the Democratic party.
4Sectional tensions caused by competing economic interests The industrial North favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufactured goods from foreign competition.The agricultural South opposed high tariffs that made the price of imports more expensive
5Sectional tensions caused by westward expansion As new states entered the union, compromises were reached that maintained the balance of power in Congress between “free” and “slave” states.
6Missouri Compromise 1820This compromise drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase that stated if you lived above the line you were free…below it you were a slave. **Missouri did become a slave state even though it was above the line.
10Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Repealed (overruled) the Missouri Compromise line by giving people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice. This was known as popular sovereignty.This law produced many bloody battles between pro and anti-slavery groups.It also led to the birth of the Republican Party that same year to oppose the spread of slavery.
12Sectional tensions caused by debates over the nature of the Union South Carolinians argued that sovereign states could nullify the Tariff of 1832 and other acts of Congress.A Union that allowed states governments to invalidate acts of the national legislature could be dissolved by states seceding from the Union in defense of slavery. (Nullification Crisis)President Jackson threatened to send federal troops collect the tariff revenues.
13Sectional tensions caused by the institution of slavery Slave revolts in Virginia, led by Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser, fed white Southerners’ fears about slave rebellions and led to harsh laws in South about fugitive slaves. Southerners who favored abolition were intimidated into silence.
14Northerners, led William Lloyd Garrison Publisher of The Liberator, increasingly viewed the institution of slavery as a violation of Christian principles and argued for its abolition.Southerners grew alarmed by the growing force of the Northern response to the abolitionist.
15Fugitive slave events pitted Southern slave owners against outraged Northerners who opposed returning escaped slave to bondage.
16The Women’s Suffrage Movement At the same time the abolitionist movement grew, another reform movement took root – the movement to give equal rights to women.Seneca Falls DeclarationRoles of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, who became involved in the women’s suffrage movement before the Civil War and continued with the movement after the war.
17Causes of the Civil WarSectional disagreements and debates over tariffs, extension of slavery in the territories, and the nature of the Union (states’ rights)Northern abolitionist versus Southern defenders of slavery.United States Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott Case.
18Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Ineffective Presidential leadership in the 1850’s.A series of failed compromises over the expansion of slaveryPresident Lincoln’s call for federal troops in 1861
19Major EventsElection of Lincoln (1860) followed by the secession of several Southern states who feared that Lincoln would try to abolish slavery.
20What were the major battles? Fort Sumter, SCOpening Confrontation of the Civil War
21Gettysburg, PATurning Point of the War. The Confederacy was winning up to the point…but the Union was able to push them back. More than 50,000 Men died.
22Appomattox, VARobert E Lee surrendered to Ulysses S Grant in the courthouse
23Who are the important people of the Civil War? Abraham LincolnPresident of the United States, believed that the Union should be held together, by forced if necessarySaid…”A house divided cannot stand.”
24Jefferson DavisU.S Senator who became the first and ONLY President of the Confederate States.The Capital of the Confederacy was RICHMOND VA!
25Ulysses S GrantUnion military commander, who won victories over the South after several other Union commanders had failed.
26Robert E LeeConfederate General of the Army of Northern Virginia. (Lee opposed succession, but did not believe the Union should be held together by force) He urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite.
27Frederick DouglassFormer slave who became a prominent black abolitionist. He urged Lincoln to recruit former slaves to fight in the Union (Northern) army.
28President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 Freed slaves in rebelling states (seceded states)Made the destruction of slavery a Northern aimDiscouraged any interference by foreign aidAllowed for African American to enlist in the Northern army
29Given after the Battle of Gettysburg to honor the fallen soldiers Gettysburg Address Lincoln gave this speech on November 19, 1863 on the battlefield near Gettysburg, PAGiven after the Battle of Gettysburg to honor the fallen soldiersLincoln described the Civil War as a struggle to preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men were created equal” and ruled the government was “of the people, by the people and for the people.”Lincoln believed America was “one nation” not a collection of states. Southerners believed that states had freely joined the union and could freely leave.
31Lincoln’s view that the United States was one indivisible nation had prevailed. Believed that succession was illegal so the Confederate government was illegitimate and the states never left the union.During the Reconstruction Lincoln wanted a quick restoration of the government in the South.Lincoln believed… “ that with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up our nation’s wounds”
32The assassination happened a few days after Lee’s surrender. The Radical Republicans then decided that the South should be punished and were put under military occupation.The states that seceded were not allowed back into the Union immediately, but were put under military occupation.Radical Republicans also believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans.They clashed repeatedly with Lincoln’s successor as president, Andrew Johnson, over the issue of civil rights for freed slaves, eventually impeaching him, but failing to remove him from office.
33Civil War Amendments13th : Slavery was abolished permanently in the United States14th: States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American.15th: Voting Rights were guaranteed regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
34End of the Reconstruction Compromise of 1877: The Republicans agreed to end the military occupation in the South, this enabled former Confederates to control the Democratic Party.This started the “Jim Crow Era”….a period of time in the South were African Americans were denied their full rights.
35What happened to the South? The South was left embittered and devastated by the war. Farms, railroads and factories had been destroyed.Confederate money was worthless.Richmond and Atlanta lay in ruins, and the source of labor was greatly changed due to loss of life and end of slaveryThe South would remain the poorestregion for many years.
36What happened to the North? The North and Midwest emerged with strong and growing industrial economies.The transcontinental railroad intensified movement west.
37How did the war effect people? African Americans: Allowed to enlistCommon Soldiers: Southern soldiers came home to destroyed farms and poverty. Most soldiers were disabled permanently.Women: assumed new roles as nurses and homemakers.
38Postwar Contributions Ulysses S Grant:Urged Radical Republican to not be harsh with former confederatesElected President and served during the ReconstructionAdvocated rights for the freedmanOpposed retribution directed at the defeated South
39Robert E. Lee:Urged Southerners to reconcile and rejoin in the United StatesServed as president of Washington College (Washington and Lee University today)Emphasized the importance of education to nations future.
40Frederick Douglass: Supported full equality for African Americans Advocated for the Passage of the 14th and 15th amendmentsEncouraged federal government actions to protect the rights of freedmen in the southServed as ambassador to Haiti and in the civil service.