Presentation on theme: "VA/US SOL Review of Unit 3: SOL 7"— Presentation transcript:
1VA/US SOL Review of Unit 3: SOL 7 Civil War & Reconstruction
2Causes of the Civil War Sectional debate over tariffs - North favored high tariffs, South opposed themB. Extension of slavery in the territories-Balance of free to slave statesC. Nature of the Union (States’ rights v. Federal Rights/ Power)
3Causes of the Civil War… D. Northern abolitionists v. southern defenders of slavery -Contradictions between slavery & democracy E. Southern Fears: -Loss of political strength by the South in Congress -Southern fear that North was out to change/ destroy their way of life F. US Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case
4Causes of the Civil War… G. Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe H. Ineffective presidential leadership in the 1850s I. A history of failed compromises over the expansion of slavery in the territories J. President Lincoln’s call for federal troops in 1861
5The Civil WarThe secession of southern states triggered a long & costly war that concluded with a Northern victory and resulted in the restoration of the Union, and emancipation of the slaves. The Civil War put constitutional government to its most important test as the debate over the power of the federal government versus states’ rights reached a climax. The survival of the US as one nation was at risk, and the nation’s ability to bring to reality the ideals of liberty, equality & justice depended on the outcome of the war.
6Lincoln elected: Nov 6, 1860However, only 40% of the US population voted for him. Before he was even inaugurated, the South started to secede from the Union because they feared he would abolish slavery.He was sworn in as our 16th President on March 4, 1861.
15Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 -Lee surrendered to Grant
16Presidents during the Civil War Abraham Lincoln (USA)Jefferson Davis (CSA)
17Military Leaders during the Civil War -Union Military Commander(U.S. Grant)-Became President of the US during most of ReconstructionUlysses S. Grant
18Military Leaders during the Civil War Robert E. Lee (Confederate) -Confederate General of the Army of Northern VA.-Opposed secession but couldn’t fight against home state of VA-Lincoln’s 1stchoice for General-After Appomattox he urged Southerners to accept defeat & rejoin the UnionRobert E. Lee (Confederate)
19Influential Leader during/ after the Civil War -Former slave-Prominent abolitionist-Fought for Blacks to be allowed to join the Union army-Became an Ambassador to Haiti after the CWFrederick Douglass
20“Words” of LincolnLincoln’s Gettysburg Address said the US was one nation, not independent sovereign states.Nation “of the people, by the people & for the people.”Lincoln believed the Civil War was fought to fulfill the promise of the Declaration of Independence & was a “2nd American Revolution.”
21Lincoln’s Words… The Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address Freed slaves in the “rebelling” states (ones that had seceded)Made abolishing slavery a Northern war aimDiscouraged any interference of foreign governmentsAllowed blacks to enlist in the Union armyGettysburg AddressDescribed the Civil War as a struggle to preserve a nation dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” and that was ruled by a government “of the people, by the people & for the people”Believed America was “one nation;” not a collection of sovereign states.
22Put in Chronological Order 6Dred Scott DecisionAbraham Lincoln elected PresidentKansas-Nebraska ActLee surrenders at AppomattoxLincoln gives Gettysburg AddressNat Turner leads slave rebellionMissouri Compromise8Shots fired at Fort SumterSouth defeated at AntietamUncle Tom’s Cabin publishedEmancipation Proclamation issuedLincoln’s call for federal troopsBattle of GettysburgFugitive Slave Law71054141113921213
23Political Effects of the War Lincoln’s view that the US was one indivisible nation had prevailedLincoln believed that since secession was illegal, Reconstruction was just a matter of installing governments loyal to the UnionLincoln didn’t want to punish the South. He said, “Act with malice towards none, with charity for all… to bind up the nation’s wounds.”
24Political Effects of the War The assassination of Lincoln after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox allowed the Radical Republicans to take over Reconstruction in a manner much more punitive towards the South. They put the South under military occupation.Radical Republicans wanted to guarantee rights to former slaves. The new President, Andrew Johnson, fought with them over the civil rights. They even tried to impeach him but failed.
25The Civil War Amendments Remember: Free Citizens Vote13th Amendment = Abolished slaverySlaves are now “Free”14th Amendment = Citizenship & prohibited states from denying equal rights under the lawBlacks, who as slaves had been property, are now “citizens”15th Amendment = Allowed black men to voteBlack (men) can “vote”
26Economic Impact from the Civil War for the South Left embittered and devastatedFarms, railroads & factories had been destroyed in the SouthConfederate money was worthlessMany cities and towns such as Richmond & Atlanta were in ruinsSource of labor was changed due to loss of life during the war & ending slaveryRemained an agricultural-based economy & really poor for decades after the War
27Economic Impact from the Civil War for the North Emerged with strong & growing industrial economies, laying the foundation for the sweeping industrialization of the nationHelped the US become a global economic power by the beginning of the 20th centuryThe completion of the Transcontinental Railroad after the war ended intensified the westward movement of settlers.
28Impact of the Civil War on People African-AmericansThe Emancipation Proclamation allowed for the enlistment of African American soldiers.Common SoldiersWarfare often involved hand-to-hand combatWar time diaries and letters home record this harsh reality.After the war, especially in the South, soldiers returned home to find homes destroyed and poverty. Soldiers on both sides lived with permanent disabilities.WomenManaged homes and families with scarce resourcesOften faced poverty and hungerAssumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and in war industries
29The End of Reconstruction The Reconstruction period ended following the extremely close presidential election of 1876.In return for support from Southern Democrats in the electoral college vote, the Republicans ended military occupation.Known as the Compromise of 1877, this enabled former Confederates who controlled the Democratic Party to regain power.It opened the door to the “Jim Crow Era,” which limited the rights of blacks in the South.
30Post-War Contributions of Leaders Ulysses S. GrantUrged Radical Republicans not to be harsh with former ConfederatesElected President and served during most of ReconstructionAdvocated rights for the freedmanOpposed retribution directed to the defeated SouthRobert E. LeeUrged Southerners to reconcile and rejoin the United StatesServed as President of Washington College (Washington & Lee University today)Emphasized the importance of education to the nation’s futureFrederick DouglassSupported full equality for African-AmericansAdvocated for the passage of the 14th & 15th AmendmentsEncouraged federal government actions to protect the rights of the freedmen in the SouthServed as ambassador to Haiti and in the civil service
32Agricultural destruction Which effect of the Civil War on the South is illustrated by this photograph?Industrial pollutionEconomic devastationPolitical corruptionAgricultural destructionRichmond, VA
332. Uprisings led by Nat Turner & Gabriel Prosser contributed to the Southern states’ decisions to- A. Pass harsh fugitive slave laws B. Accept the Missouri Compromise C. Enact Jim Crow legislation D. Support the passing of higher tariffs
343. In the Gettysburg Address, President Abraham Lincoln rejected the idea that the country was--- A federation of sovereign statesA society based on equalityCommitted to unity at any costFounded on democratic ideals
354. The Battle of Gettysburg was a significant event of the Civil War because it--- Caused states to secede from the UnionWas the opening conflict of the warForced the surrender of the SouthWas the turning point of the war
365. Which man was a United States Senator who became the leader of the Confederacy? Robert E. LeeJefferson DavisNat TurnerStonewall Jackson
376. This statement expressed President Lincoln’s plans for--- With malice toward non; with charity for all…let us strive…to bind up the nation’s wounds…-Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address6. This statement expressed President Lincoln’s plans for---Creating a strategy for a Union victoryEliminating Jim Crow lawsConvincing Congress to abolish slaveryReadmitting the Confederate states
387. One major economic impact of the Civil War was the --- Emergence of the South as a manufacturing centerIncrease in the number of laborers relocating to the SouthStrengthening of the North and Midwest industrial regionsIncrease in tariffs imposed on French & British goods
398. What failed to carry out the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence? Bill of RightsDred Scott decision14th amendmentVoting Rights Act of 1965