Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 LESSON 2 MESOPOTAMIAN EMPIRES. THE FIRST EMPIRES EQ: Why does conflict develop? By 2400BC Sumer’s city-state was becoming weaker than surrounding."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 4 LESSON 2 MESOPOTAMIAN EMPIRES
THE FIRST EMPIRES EQ: Why does conflict develop? By 2400BC Sumer’s city-state was becoming weaker than surrounding kingdoms with powerful rulers Empire = Area of land containing many different types of people under the complete authority of one person The first empire: Kingdom of Akkad developed in northern Mesopotamia, Sumer, and eventually the rest of Mesopotamia Sargon the Great = 1 st ruler 1 st to created permanent armies
WHO WAS HAMMURABI? The Amorites conquered Mesopotamia Babylon was the grandest city Hammurabi was king Conquered many cities and lands to make the Babylonian Empire Set up the first Legal system = Hammurabi’s Code 282 laws written by Hammurabi inscribed on an upright stone pillar. The code was found by French archaeologists in 1901 while excavating the ancient city of Susa, which is in modern-day Iran. Hammurabi’s Code = laws for his empire that dealt with crimes, farming, business, marriage, and the family ( Dealt with everyday issues back then) The code listed a punishment for each crime HARSH “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” means that the punishment for a crime should match the seriousness of the crime
Examples of Codes -- Can you imagine?!? If you built a structure and it fell and killed someone, then as the builder, someone in your family would be killed If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off. If a slave says to his master: "You are not my master," if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear. If a man has destroyed the eye of a man of the gentleman class, they shall destroy his eye.... If he has destroyed the eye of a commoner... he shall pay one mina of silver. If he has destroyed the eye of a gentleman's slave... he shall pay half the slave's price." The Babylonians clearly did not live under a social system that treated all people equally. The prologue or introduction to the list of laws is very enlightening. Here, Hammurabi states that he wants "to make justice visible in the land, to destroy the wicked person and the evil-doer, that the strong might not injure the weak." The laws themselves support this compassionate claim, and protect widows, orphans and others from being harmed or exploited. It was meant to limit punishment and do away with blood feuds It protected the less powerful
Go Jump in the River! A number of the laws refer to jumping in the Euphrates River as a method of demonstrating one's guilt or innocence. If the accused returned to shore safely, they were deemed innocent; if they drowned, they were guilty. This practice follows the Babylonians' belief that their fates were controlled by their gods. From the code, it is evident that the Babylonians did not believe all people were equal. The code treated slaves, commoners, and nobles differently. Women had a number of rights, including the ability to buy and sell property and to obtain a divorce. The Babylonians understood the need for honesty by all parties in a trial and for court officers to be free of corruption so that the justice system could function effectively.
THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE Ruled from the Persian Gulf to Egypt 1000 years after Hammurabi Powerful military made of infantry (foot soldiers) and cavalry (horse soldiers) and charioteers Iron Weapons = slingshots, bows, arrows, swords, spears Brutal fighters = set fire to crops, homes, and towns; Took tribute (forced payment) from conquered people Government: Capital of the empire = Nineveh Powerful, harsh kings Divided empire into provinces (political districts) Built roads between provinces Set up stations with soldiers to guard and protect traders from bandits; rest area for government messengers and their chariot horses Law codes were harsher than Mesopotamian Farming and trade were important Wood and metal for building, tools and weapons Assyrians stop at 3:03 EQ: Why did conflict develop in the Assyrian empire?
THE CHALDEAN EMPIRE Because the Assyrians were so harsh, the Chaldeans rebelled King Nabopolassar led revolt against Assyrians in 627 BC Created new empire with the Medes Capital = Babylon The Greatness of Babylon King Nebuchadnezar (son of Nabopolassar) made Babylon the richest and largest city in the world Surrounded by huge brick walls with soldiers as guards in towers built into the walls Grand palaces and temples Ziggurat 300 ft tall with gold roof King’s palace had giant staircase with greenery known as the Hanging Gardens One of the seven wonders of the world Hanging gardens stop at 4:04
THE GREATNESS OF BABYLON CONTINUED Very Wealthy City Each spring held a ceremony for the god Marduk hoping to bring peace and bigger crops to their empire Build many new canals, making land even more fertile high taxes and tributes Major trade route between Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea passed through Babylon Caravans (large traveling groups) bought pottery, cloth, baskets, and jewelry Scientific Achievements Astronomers studied the star, planets, phases of the moon Invented one of the first sundials to measure time First to follow a seven day week Alphabet = Letters that represent sounds
FALL OF THE EMPIRE Weak kings ruled after Nebuchadnezzer died Poor harvests Slow trade In 539 BC, Persians captured Babylon and made Mesopotamia part of their empire EQ: Why did conflict develop in the Chaldean Empire?
1)LESSON 2 REVIEW p.93 #3, 4, AND 5 ONLY 2)FINISH LESSON 1 AND 2 HANDOUTS Turn it ALL into your period folder on Mrs. Young’s desk when finished