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The Treaty of Versailles The “Peace” Treaty that led to Hitler

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1 The Treaty of Versailles The “Peace” Treaty that led to Hitler
“This is not a peace treaty. It is a 20 year truce”- Marshall Foch (Supreme Allied Commander) “If I was a German I would not sign it” –President Woodrow Wilson

2 Lesson Objectives What were the terms of the Treaty.
Explain Hitler’s reaction to the Treaty Compare and Contrast the view points of the Allied Powers in constructing the treaty. Discuss the effects of the Treaty on Germany

3 After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One?
“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock.” (Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.) Peace

4 Treaty Of Versailles Leaders Wanted Did not want
David Lloyd George Woodrow Wilson George Clemenceau

5 Great Britain, America and France were the three most powerful Allies and they wanted to exert their influence upon the Treaty of Versailles. Yet they wanted different things.

6 David Lloyd George (UK)
Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshly Germany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britain's own navy and empire Germany and Britain to become trading partners BUT Overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future

7 What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?
Clemenceau (France) Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again. He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future. Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace-Lorraine as this had been taken from France by Germany in In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher. What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?

8 a better and more peaceful world
Wilson (USA) a better and more peaceful world a League of Nations that would help and support each other and help to promote world peace the right to self-determination. The right to decide which country you wish to be governed by The U.S.A. had joined war late (1917) and hadn't suffered as much as the other Allies in terms of human and material costs.

9 What did Wilson like and dislike about the treaty?
Wilson (USA) Wilson got self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe, and a League of Nations, but he was disappointed with the Treaty because few of his ideas were acted upon. Worst of all, when Wilson went back to America, the Senate refused to join the League of Nations, and refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles! In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices. Wilson believed that Germany should be punished, but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation (peace) as opposed to revenge (war). What did Wilson like and dislike about the treaty?

10 The Treaty of Versailles
The terms of The Treaty of Versailles What would members of the public in Allied countries think of the Germans in 1918?

11 What does this source tell you about the British public’s feelings towards Germany in 1918?
“The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak.” (Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918) Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.

12 John D. Clare, First World War (1994)
Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war? Around 8 million people had been killed The cost of the war was roughly 36 Billion Dollars The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease “In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyed…In some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War.” John D. Clare, First World War (1994)

13 Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.
“The British General Election in December 1918 was flooded by the belief that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up….Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press…” Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988. Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace?

14 The Main Allied Powers: Can you name them by their flags?
World War One ended when Germany and the allies signed the Treaty of Versailles. The victorious nations, especially France, wanted to ensure that Germany would never be able to fight another world war. Their aim was to devastate Germany militarily and economically. The Germans were excluded from the creation of the treaty and were even barred from discussing it with the allies. What is this cartoon conveying?

15 Germany Loses Territory
Germany lost 1/8 of her land. This also accounts for six million of her people. Which territorial loss is the most devastating to Germany? Why? What is that land called?

16 An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of 15 years.
No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone. Did you know? The French used African troops to occupy the Rhineland. This led to a generation of ½ African, ½ German children. The Nazis referred to them as “The Rhineland Bastards'” How would you feel if foreign troops occupied your country?

17 The Military How big was the German Army in 1914? What effect can this term have on a nations economy? The army was limited to 100,000 men. Tanks and planes were not allowed.

18 Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the World War One. This was called the “War Guilt Clause”. As a consequence Germany had to pay reparations to the allies totaling 132 Billion Gold Marks. That’s over 450 Billion US dollars in today’s money! Made final payment in October of 2010!

19 What differences do you see in the 2 maps?
To what extent is self-determination reflected in your differences?

20 How can Germans view this as unfair?
Term of the treaty How can Germans view this as unfair? How can a man like Hitler use this to his advantage? Germany loses 1/8 of her land and 6 million of her people. Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men with no modern weapons like tanks or planes. Allied troops to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years Germany had to accept full responsibility for starting the war. Germany had to pay 132 billion in reparations.

21 Recap... The German government publicly denounced the treaty, and for the first time all Germans of every social class and political party were united in against it. But refusal to sign the treaty would mean continuing the war, something Germany couldn’t do. Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust. The signing of this treaty was a blow to the new Republic from which it never fully recovered. For a majority of people their faith in democracy was destroyed.

22 Exit Card Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: “The Treaty of Versailles created Adolf Hitler.”? Why?

23 Quick Test 1. What was the peace treaty called?
2. What was the treaty designed to do? 3. Why was the loss of the “Polish Corridor” so devastating to Germany? 4. What was the Rhineland? 5. How many soldiers were the German army allowed to retain under the treaty?

24 6. How much were the Germans supposed to pay the Allies in reparations?
7. What did the “War Guilt Clause” mean? 8. What would happen if the Germans refused to sign the treaty? 9. If you were a German would you be opposed or for this treaty?

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