2 Aims: Understand why Germany was angry about the Treaty of Versailles. Identify how people in Britain felt about the Versailles Treaty.Examine how the treaty is connected to the causes of World War Two.
6 The ArmisticePresident Wilson of the USA had negotiated the terms of the cease-fire with the Germans.On 11th November 1918, an armistice was finally signed between the Allies and Germany and the Germans agreed to peace negotiations on the basis of the 14 points.
7 Treaty of VersaillesRepresentatives of 32 countries representing three-quarters of the world’s population met 9 weeks after the armistice – January 1919.Peace negotiations took place at Palace of Versailles, just outside Paris.Prime Minister/President Clemenceau of France chaired the conference.No neutral powers or defeated powers were represented at the negotiations.
8 Timing and Location of the Treaty Only 9 weeks after the armisticeAllies were keen to reach a quick settlement and bring stability to Europe.Not a neutral location or chairperson – Palace of Versailles, Paris and chaired by Prime Minister Clemenceau.Feelings were running high at the end of the Great War. France had experienced the most devastation during the war.
9 The Big Four President Woodrow Wilson (USA) President Georges Clemenceau (France)Prime Minister Lloyd George (GB)President Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
10 The Big Four No neutral powers Big Four – USA, Great Britain, France and Italy dominated discussions.Neither Germany or her Allies were represented at the negotiations.Great pressure on the Big Four to reach a quick settlement that satisfied public opinion in their own individual countries.
11 The Big Four – Prime Minister Clemenceau - France A former war general who had experienced two German invasions of France in 1870 and 1914.Aimed to protect French security and prevent any future invasions.France had suffered the most casualties and destruction.Desired revenge, protection and compensation.
12 The Big Four – President Wilson - USA USA had not joined the war until was the least affected out of the Big Four.USA had a more forgiving attitude.Wilson wanted peace based on his 14 points to make ‘the world safe for democracy’
13 The Big Four – Prime Minister Lloyd George – Great Britain Recognised the danger of punishing Germany too severelyHe had won the 1918 general election by promising revenge on Germany.Public opinion in Britain wanted Germany punished.
14 The Big Four – President Orlando - Italy Italy had made a minor contribution to the war.Saw the peace conference as an opportunity to gain land from Austria and Turkey.
15 The Terms of the Treaty Territorial Terms Military Terms Reparations War Guilt
17 How The Treaty of Versailles Affected Germany Collect a sheet with the cartoons showing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.Cut out the cartoons and stick them into your jotter.Next to each one write a description of what Germany lost.Use page 7 of your workguide to help you.
18 How The Treaty of Versailles Affected Germany Now draw two cartoons to represent thelast two terms of the treaty.Germany had to pay financialcompensation called Reparations fordeaths and damage during the war.Article 231 – Germany had to acceptresponsibility for causing the war.910
19 The War Guilt ClauseUnder Article 231 Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for causing the war.This allowed the Allies to justify the amount of money that they would have to pay in reparations.
20 Signing of the TreatyGerman delegates were forced to sign the treaty or the war and naval blockade would be resumed.Germans called it a ‘diktat’ or dictated peace.
21 Territorial Terms – Fair or Unfair? Countries like Poland had German minorities – went against principle of self-determination in Wilson’s 14 points.Alsace and Lorraine had been French territory.Redrawing borders would not satisfy everyone.Germany lost 13.5% of its territory, 10% of its population and 13% of its economic productivity.
22 Military Terms – Fair or Unfair? Germany lacked an army large enough to defend herself.Demilitarisation of Rhineland made it difficult for Germany to defend herself if attacked.Allies argued there was no need – unless Germany was planning to start another war.Allies showed no intention of disarming.
23 Reparations – Fair or Unfair? Common to pay reparations at the end of a war.Unrealistic burden was placed on Germany.Never before had there been war on this scale.Final amount not fixed until 1921 – Germany effectively signed a ‘blank cheque’ at Versailles.
24 War Guilt – Fair or Unfair? Germany alone was not responsible for the outbreak of war.It could be argued that every country had played a part through their involvement in the Alliance system.War Guilt allowed the Allies to justify the payment of reparations by Germany.