USE ANY OF THESE VISUAL TECHNIQUES 1.IPDE 2.The Smith System 3.Zone Control
1. “IPDE” Identify – use a visual search pattern to gather information about the roadway ahead. Predict – Use your knowledge and experience to predict the actions of others and the environment. Decide – If you need to change or maintain direction and speed, or communicate. Execute – Your chosen actions.
VISUAL SEARCH PATTERNS Peripheral Vision Central Vision Focus Vision THE THREE VISUAL FIELDS
Rural or High Speed Search Patterns 20 to 30 Second Search Area 12 to 15 Second Search far ahead to identify potential conflicts Objects in Path and Areas of Limited Visibility Limitations to Path of Travel and Line of Sight Control Area
2. SMITH SYSTEM Aim High in steering to allow more time for driver response Keep your eyes moving to search for hazards and vehicle movement around the vehicle Get the big picture of where your vehicle is located in time and space Make sure others see you by using appropriate communication, lane position, and visibility Leave yourself an out to reduce risk of collision from the front, sides or rear
Aim High : Targeting A “Target” is a fixed object in the center of the path you intend to drive What is the target in the driver’s path of travel?
Target Area The Target area is the area to the left and right of your target
DETERMINING FOLLOWING INTERVALS A 3 second following interval should provide enough time to avoid a problem if you are monitoring the actions of drivers 8 to 12 seconds ahead in your path of travel. In most cases, you’d still have to steer towards an “escape path”, so 3 seconds is MINIMUM! 3 second interval 8 – 12 second interval
Control Space to the Rear Check rear view mirror: After seeing a zone change Before and after braking While stopped Before and after making turns Before and after a lane change Check blind spots
IDENTIFYING VEHICLES TYPES Sensory Input to the Brain CAMPER, PICK-UP, MOTOR HOMES, MOTORCYCLES, FARM MACHINES, OFF-ROAD SNOWMOBILES Motor Vehicles Road Handling Characteristics Type
Identifying Non-Motorized Users NON-MOTORIZED USERS KIND AND SIZE NUMBERS AGE OF RIDER ACTIVITY RIDER ABILITY In-Line Skates, Skateboards Animals Sensory Input to the Brain Pedestrians Bicycles
SENSORY INPUT TO THE BRAIN Sensory Input to the Brain TRAFFICCONTROLS Regulatory Warning Guide Stop/Go Lane Turning Flashes Passing Crosswalk Stop line Signs Signals Roadway Markings Unmarked Intersections Interchanges Traffic Controls
INTERSECTION SEARCH PATTERNS Intersection Approach Check open areas, then closed areas to front Check to the rear Communicate as necessary Check areas adjacent to path of travel Check sightlines left and right Adjust speed and/or position as appropriate Open Closed Open
LINE OF SIGHT THROUGH LEFT CURVE Establish Line of Sight and Projected Path of Travel Check to the Rear Adjust Position for Maximum View of Oncoming Traffic Establish Target Area for Path of Travel Adjust Speed and Position to Conditions
LINE OF SIGHT OVER HILL Sightline limitations are similar to a curve Adjust speed and vehicle position to the right or outside of lane What’s this car NOT doing correctly?
Front Right Front Left Front Center Rear Right Rear Center Rear Left Be aware of these six “zones” around your vehicle and make note if they are “open” (nothing is there) or “closed” (something is there). Identify closed zones first.
MAXIMIZE LANE USE Use the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and path of travel. This diagram is based upon an average 12 foot wide lane. 2 5 4 1 3
Lane Positions #4 and 5 Lane positions 4 and 5 – straddling the line to avoid a problem 5 4
HOW DO YOU KNOW HOW FAR YOUR VEHICLE IS FROM THE CURB OR EDGE OF THE ROAD? Driver
ANSWER: REFERENCE POINTS This driver is using her left side mirror, lined up with the first crosswalk line, to help her know that the front of her car is stopped just before the crosswalk!
MORE REFERENCE POINTS This driver can use the right strap holding his canoe on as a reference point. As long as it lined up with the solid white line, his car is in the middle of his lane.
ANOTHER EXAMPLE You could use the windshield sticker to help keep the car about 3’ from the left edge of this lane. You could also use the little bump in between the wipers to keep the car about 3’ from the right edge of the lane.
Reference points can be very useful when parking in tight parking spaces!
SummarySummarySummarySummary Use IPDE to reduce risk. Use the Smith System to be aware of your surroundings. Use Zone Control to manage the immediate area around your vehicle. Use reference points to help know your vehicle’s position in the road.