Presentation on theme: "Bellringer I will be selecting new student leaders for classroom jobs that will last through the end of the quarter. If you would like to be considered,"— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer I will be selecting new student leaders for classroom jobs that will last through the end of the quarter. If you would like to be considered, please write down which job you would like and explain why for your bellringer. If you are not interested- find something to read or work quietly on for the next few minutes. Class jobs- MC, Class Manager, Attendance Clerk, Catch Up Clerk, & Errand Runner
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt How did social class affect daily life in ancient Egypt?
Opet Festival 27 day festival for all people Brought people from different social classes together Honored the god Ra by adorning his statue with jewelry and placing in a shrine on ceremonial boat called a barque. These various social classes made up the social pyramid of Egypt.
Social Pyramid Levels 1. Pharaoh- viewed as a “God, general, and king” 2. Government officials- mainly nobles who came from wealthy families. Enjoyed high quality of life. 3.Priests- powerful, in charge of temples and rituals, also ceremonies surrounding death and burials of the elite 4. Scribes- respected position, recorded information for government and religious leaders, took many years of education to become a scribe. 5. Artisans- people like carpenters, metalworkers, painters, sculptors, and stone carvers. Highly skilled 6. Peasants- largest social classes, worked the land to provide a food supply for Egypt. When not working helped to build the massive building projects of the Pharaoh
Life in Egypt’s Social Classes Social pyramid was fairly rigid Most people belonged to the social class their parents did All classes cherished family life. Married within own social class, children highly valued The higher the social class, the better quality of life.
Women Women- managed the household and raised the children – Upper class women had slaves or servants to help them with these roles – Lower class women did all the work themselves Women enjoyed more freedom and rights than most women in the ancient world They could own land and run businesses Ask for divorces and represent themselves in law Some middle and upper class women worked as doctors, government officials, and priestesses
Men Men- head of household, brought home the money – Boys trained at a young age to take on their father’s line of work
Government Officials Job was to assist the Pharaoh in his or her role as supreme leader Came from the Pharaoh’s own family or other noble families in Egypt Many inherited their position from family members Sometimes trusted servants from the royal court rose to power
Three Important Government Officials Vizier (vuh-ZEER)- – advised the pharaoh and carried out his/her commands. – Most powerful official. – Appointed and supervised other officials – Served as chief judge – Often wore white to shown themselves as “neutral” The Chief Treasurer- – oversaw the government’s wealth – Collected taxes – Economy was based in goods, not gold – Many paid in grain, cows, cloth, and silver The General of the Armies – Advised the Pharaoh in matters of war and national security – Helped make alliances with other kingdoms
Lives of Luxury Government officials led lives of luxury Great wealth Fine homes Lots of social time Lavish banquets/feasts- typically female servants waited on guests, entertainment provided by typically women musicians Dressed in fine linen clothing Women had fine jewelry, perfume & used makeup- painted nails, eye shadow, and lipstick
Priests Powerful and respected Large network of priests served under the pharaoh High Priest advised the pharaoh and oversaw religious ceremonies Temple Priests were in charge of temples throughout the kingdom Other priests handled more common concerns and requests, gave advice, and performed healings.
Priestesses Women were allowed to serve as Priestesses Regarded as equal to men Main duty was to oversee temples devoted to music and dancing
Temple Priest Important Role Every temple was home to one or more Egyptian Gods Temple’s God was thought to live in a statue It was housed in a holy room called a sanctuary Only a priest who had cleansed/purified himself could enter the room – Avoid foods such as fish – Bath in holy pools 3-4 times daily – Linen clothes only – Shave off his body hair
Burial Practices One of the most important responsibilities of a priest was their role in burial practices Egyptians believed in an afterlife Embalmed bodies to preserve them
Embalming Process 1.Removed body’s organs (brain, lungs, and liver) – Used hooks to pull out the brain through the nostrils – Only the heart remained because they believed it was used by the Gods to judge the person’s soul. 2. Packed the organs in jars to preserve them using a salt called natron. 3. After around 70 days, the embalmers washed and oiled the body, wrapping it in hundreds of yards of linen. – Decorated the body with jewelry, charms, etc. – Placed a mask over the head. – Coated the body in a black gooey gum and wrapped it in linen once again. 4. Placed the mummy in a large stone coffin called a sarcophagus. 5. Rich Egyptians buried the mummies with food & drink, jewelry, gold, clothes, games, etc. Poor Egyptians buried their mummies with loaves of bread and other items they thought might be useful in the afterlife.
Scribes Highly respected and well paid Worked for the government, priests, or nobles Came from all classes of society- only men were allowed to become scribes Attended scribe school to train Began at age of 5 Typically spent 12 years learning hieroglyphs (symbols used in Egyptian writing) Had to memorize over 700 hieroglyphs- took years of practice Eventually allowed to write on paper called papyrus School was harsh, lasted from dawn to sunset, teachers were strict, often gave beatings
What scribes did: Keep various types of records from census data to taxes collected Used tools- pens made from sharpened reeds, for paper a sheet of papyrus laid on a writing tablet made of wood or stone Black or Red ink used Carried tools and rolls of papyrus with them always
Papyrus Remarkable invention Made paper by cutting the inner part of the papyrus plant into strips. Soaked strips in water for several days until soft Laid out in crisscross pattern, pressed between cloth until water was absorbed Pressed to form sheets of paper
Artisans Skilled laborers-carpenters, jewelers, leatherworkers, metalworkers, painters, potters, sculptors, & weavers Most skilled were stone carvers (statues, engravings, and reliefs found in tombs, temples, and monuments) Lived in modest homes Worked 10 days in a row before time off Often times went hungry when food was scarce Often times upper-class saw them as mere laborers despite their artistic skills
Peasants Largest and lowest class of society Unskilled laborers Society depended upon their work Grew crops and helped build projects like the pyramids Life revolved around The Three Seasons of the Nile Few comforts- simple diet (mostly bread or vegetables), plain houses made of mud bricks, little free time Were allowed to celebrate holidays and attend festivals Paid taxes through their harvest- if they had a bad harvest could be brutally beaten
The Three Seasons of the Nile Flooding Season – June-September – Nile overran its banks and fertilized with silt deposits. – Labored on Royal Projects at this time Planting Season – In October sowed fields with seeds-wheat & barley – Farmers and their wife did this together with the help of a plow pulled by cattle – Irrigated fields through season Harvest Season – March begins this time. – Men cut down crops with sickles – Women & Children gather the crops – Dawn to dusk work days – Used music to pass the time- sang & played instruments in the fields
Egyptian Art & Achievements
Hieroglyphics Egyptian style of picture writing Written on papyrus; a dry, hard material woven from reeds Over 600 symbols—can be written horizontal, vertical, left to right, or right to left.
Rosetta Stone Found in 1799 Written in Greek, Hieroglyphics, and later Egyptian language Important in translating and understanding hieroglyphics
Egyptian Texts Egyptians wrote a variety of texts: Government History Science Medicine Literature Myths
Temples Homes of the gods Decorated with sphinxes and obelisks Lavishly painted in hieroglyphics Three famous temples: Karnak, Abu Simbel, Luxor
Egyptian Art Different mediums: canvas, papyrus, plaster, pottery, wood Subjects vary: history, religion, and everyday life Unique style: heads and legs to the side, torsos straight on Important people and things were larger
Other Art Stoneworks, statues Gold, jewelry, burial items King Tut’s tomb