Presentation on theme: "Nga Pakihihi Whakatekateka O Waitaha CWMS MANA WHENUA Presentation to the Selwyn Waihora Zone Committee Tuesday 5th April 2011 Iwi – Ngai Tahu Whanui Nga."— Presentation transcript:
Nga Pakihihi Whakatekateka O Waitaha CWMS MANA WHENUA Presentation to the Selwyn Waihora Zone Committee Tuesday 5th April 2011 Iwi – Ngai Tahu Whanui Nga Hapu – Ngai Tahu Whanau – the heart of hapu Mihi Nga Papatipu Runanga Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu Individual Hapu – Incorporated Societies / Charitable Trust
Treaty of Waitangi 1840 Kemp’s Deed 1848 Creation of various Maori Reserve Waitaki River in the south to Kaikoura in the north -Te Parinui o Whiti (Vernon Bluffs) Nga Pakihihi Whakatekateka O Waitaha CWMS TAKIWA – BOUNDARIES
CULTURAL VALUES “Mo tatou me nga uri e whai ake nei” – For this and future generations Kaitiakitanga – Resource Management Healthy Water, Healthy Land, Healthy People Whakapapa – Relationships; Ki Uta Ki Tai Mana Whenua / Mana Moana – Rights & Responsibilities Mahinga Kai – Wellbeing of whanau & hapu
KAITIAKITANGA A practice governed by a highly developed system of Matauranga Maori (iunderstanding of the natural world) and Tikanga (values based decisons and leadership). Key objective to sustain the resources we all depend upon and thereby enhance the integrity of life (balanced well-beings). Fundamental Premise Land (Papatuanuku) and Water (Tangaroa) sustain people. People must therefore sustain land & water for present & future well- being. We must make sure that our actions do not compromise the life supporting capacity of the environment. Expressions of Kaitiakitanga (a) Iwi Management Plans (e.g. Te Whakatau Kaupapa 1990, Ngai Tahu Fresh Water Policy 2002) i.e. statements of iwi/hapu policies for the sustanable management of natural resources consistent with iwi/hapu values; (b) Cultural Health Index / State of the Takiwa i.e. Fresh-water Monitoring & Assessments tools and programmes; (c) South Island Customary Fisheries Regulations e.g. mataitai & taiapure reserves; (d) Rahui; (e) Species translocations; (f) Courts & Tribunals (Hunter Downs Irrigation); etc...
KAITIAKITANGA Scope kaitiakitanga can be applied broadly or specifically (e.g. From catchment based land & water management to species specific care & protection). It can be specific or overarching. It all depends on the context. Regardless of context, it is essential to recognise the inter-connectedness between the different elements of the environment. Long Term Focussed Planning Thinking ahead is a central pillar to traditional natural resource management. Our children are our greatest resource. We must plan for their well-being. Inherited Responsibility Customary rights to use resources are premised on customary responsibilities to protect, sustain and/or enhance. Difficult (impossible?) when not at decision making table.
MAURI All things are considered to have mauri – i.e. the energy / capacity to help create & sustain life). Mauri is the traditional key environmental ‘performance’ indicator. The absence/presence/strength of the mauri for any given environment indicates the physical and spiritual health of that environment. An assessment of mauri informs how to manage that environment. Expressions of mauri-based resource management – House of Tahu.
WELL BEING OF OUR PEOPLE Core value that underpins management and decision making. Well being is understood holistically: 1.Taha wairua (spiritual health) 2.Taha hinengaro (mental health) 3.Taha tinana (physical health) 4.Taha whanaungatanga (strong families, healthy communities) Policy development and implementation in all services, including natural resource management, must ensure the well being of our people.
MANA TUPUNA You cannot know where you are going to, without knowing where you come from. Important to ensure that the knowledge of our ancestors is passed on and reflected in the management of natural resources today – mistakes and successes. Upholding this mana is about honouring the traditions and tikanga of those that came before. Challenge is to find ways of applying intergenerational knowledge to contemporary contexts.
WAAHI TAPU, WAAHI TAONGA Waahi tapu place under tapu (restriction, sanctity) Waahi taonga places treasured for their assocaiation and fundamental significance to: – Natural heritage (e.g. place names, purakau/stories, ara tawhito/ancestral trails, kaainga/villages & paa sites, urupa/burial sites); and – Culturtal heritage (e.g. wetlands, riparian margins, coastal lagoons estuaries & river mouths, springs, etc...) The protection of waahi tapu and waahi taonga is a principle that underpins traditional natural resource related decisions due to their fundamental role in sustaining a balanced healthy environment.
WAAHI TAPU, WAAHI TAONGA These taonga have been valued and left to us, to maintain our presence on this landscape. This includes matauranga taiao / knowledge of the environment. Specialised knowledge, customs, practices and protocols have been passed down by our tupuna/ancestors They have been determinbed to help ensure the ongoing sustainability of local resources. Rahui, mataitai, taiapure are examples of customary management practices, developed and used by our tupuna and which are still used in at a least a modified form today.
WATER DIFFERENT PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS, DIFFERENT USES For example: Waiora – Pure water. Contains the source of life and nurtures spiritual and physical wellbeing. Wai Maori – is water in a normal and healthy state; water becomes wai maori when it comes into unprotected contact with humans. It has a mauri (which is generally benevolent) and which can be controlled by ritual. Waikino – is water which has been polluted or debased, spoilt or corrupted. In waikino the mauri has been altered so that the supernatural forces are non- selective and can cause harm to anyone Waimate – is water that has lost its mauri or life force and has the potential to cause ill fortune, contamination or distress to the mauri of other living things, including people, their kaimoana or their agriculture. The subtle differences between waikino and waimate are based on the continued existence of a mauri (albeit damaged) in the former, and its total loss in the latter.
VALUES & RIVERS Mauri – Point and non-point discharges impact and erode the mauri. Flows affect mauri. Flow regime must ensure life supporting capacity is maintained. Natural character and flow variability is part of the life essence of the river. Maintaining water quality is part of respecting the river. Protect, enhance & sustain strategic features of our environment to help nature help us. Wetlands – Reduced flows, land use and drainage have reduced the number of wetlands associated with rivers and tributaries. Adequate flows are needed to maintain any remnant wetlands. Wetlands are linked to water quality in their functions as filtering water, they are the ‘kidneys’ of the land. Springs – In some places, river flows are directly linked to waipuna. The flow of waipuna (or lack of) may be used as an indicator of river health. Riparian Areas – Healthy riparian areas, and the indigenous species associated with them, require good water quality and sufficient flow. Reduced flows result in encroachment of introduced plants (invasion) into a riverbed.
VALUES & RIVERS Coastal Lagoons & Estuaries - these are the key indicators of the health / mauri of the whole river. They are vital areas for sustaining mahinga kai species, many of which require access to and from the ocean. flow conditions are directly related to the nature and extent of river flows into the sea and to maintaining the balance of freshwater saltwater mix. Mahinga Kai – Certain fish species will require certain levels of flow for migration and spawning. Temperature and water quality (and other ecological conditions) create distinctive habitats for species. Flood events as part of anatural hydrologic regime are necessary to maintain vegetation free gravel bars in the river channel for nesting birds. When water demand is highest is often when fish need the water the most. Wahi tapu/wahi taonga – Change in flow can either flood or expose wahi tapu such as pa sites, middens, ovens, urupa or water burial sites. Rivers and their tributaries are considered wahi taonga and thus sufficient flow and water quality must be maintained. Wahi ingoa/place names - Place names often describe the physical environment, such as specific characteristics or uses associated with a waterway. Such characteristics or use may be dependent on particular flow and water quality.
KAITIAKITANGA Ensuring that values associated with the river are protected is a key aspect of kaitiakitanga and the rights and responsibilities that characterise the relationship between TW and rivers. Restoration of the ability of TW to effectively participate in freshwater resource management (in partnership and other agencies) is part of recognising and providing for Kaitiakitanga. The essence of Kaitiakitanga is encapsulated in following whakatauki (traditional proverb/axiom) Toi Tu Te Marae o Tangaroa Toi Tu Te Marae o Tane Toi Tu Te Iwi Healthy Water Healthy Land Healthy People