3People Hernando de Soto Rene Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle Henry de TontiPierre le Moyne Sieur de’IbervilleJean-Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur d’BienvilleWinthrop Sargent David Holmes
4Places Rosedale Fort Maurepas Fort Rosalie Natchez District Natchez TraceWashington
5Early MississippiansNative Americans reached this part of North America tens of thousands of years ago.They hunted wild animals, foraged for food, and raised cropsWhat does the fact that they farmed tell you?The Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Natchez were descendants of those early Native Americans.These were the largest tribes in the Mississippi region when Europeans and Africans began to arrive.Places like Yazoo and Biloxi are derived from Indian tribe names.
6First EuropeansThe Spanish and the French were the first to explore Mississippi.Hernando de Soto discovered the Mississippi River but died while searching for treasure.The French travelled the river trading furs and proselytizing.
7Settlement The French settled Natchez, beside the Mississippi River. Later the British, Spanish and Americans shared this region with the Choctaw.In 1798 the U.S. created the Ms Territory to encourage the orderly settlement of this part of the frontier
8Early Native Americans How did they get here?See Handout
9History of early Native Americans is divided into four periods
10Paleo Period Ice Age Period ended around 12,000 years ago Siberian land bridge vs French fishermenArcheologists have found few traces of Paleo Indians in Mississippi
11Archaic Period The climate became warmer and drier Large animals died outNative Americans became less nomadicThey hunted, fished and gathered nuts and berriesNo writing systemUsed stone tools
12Woodland PeriodDeveloped highly organized societies in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleysBuilt burial mounds over tombs sometimes shaping them like birds and animals (Moundbuilders)Learned how to farm and used copper and stone tools suggesting a wide-ranging trade systemVillages became larger and politically linked.Began using bow and arrow
14Mississippian PeriodContinued moundbuilding tradition however, instead of burial mounds, they built religious buildings and the homes of the chiefs on top of their flat, rectangular moundsExisted between the 8th and 17th centuriesFound all throughout the southeastern U.S.The second largest mound is located in NatchezMany others are spread across the stateIn some cases, like Natchez, mounds were built in stages and some were multiple mounds. One was the base for a temple where elders’ bones were buriedBuilt villages surrounded by wooden fences.Grew corn, squash, beans
16Native American Societies Most were very small societies (Choula, Pascagoula, Tunica, and Biloxi)The largest were the Chickasaw, Choctaw and NatchezAll Mississippi Native American languages were similar to others in the southeast EXCEPT for the BiloxiMost southeastern Native American tribes shared similar religious beliefs.Each village governed itself and sent representatives to the tribal councils.A strict chain of command was established and regulated issues like seating at councils, titles, and even tattoos
17Native American Societies (cont) The Choctaw (18th Century) had a main chief and six lesser chiefs. They also had the Mingo Oumu (War Chief) and the Tichou Mingo (Spokesperson)Within each village resided several clans (Groups of related families)These clans punished crimes and protected members of the clanIf necessary, it sought revenge for the murder of other clansmen.The clan approved marriages which ALWAYS crossed clan lines. (Marrying outside ones own clan is called Exogamy)When a couple married they lived close to the wife’s family.
18Native American Society (cont) Any children were considered of the wife’s clan.In this society the closest MALE relative of a child was considered to be the mother’s brother; NOT his own father.Men held the important political and religious positions in the societyOccasionally, a man had more than one wife (Polygamy) and the two wives were usually sisters.They built close to rivers and streams because it was easier to farm and irrigate.Women did most of the farming, although the men cleared the land.Crops included: Maize, Pumpkin, Beans, and Peas.
19Native American Society (cont) Women made pottery, gathered food, farmed, fished, and tanned hidesMen constructed buildings, hunted deer and bear, and fought other tribes.Religion centered on the sun and sacred fires which represented the sun on Earth.They believed in spirits and gods associated with nature and animals.
20Native American Wide World of Sports Their sport was stickball. It was associated with religion also. It was called Ishtohbohl and accompanied by ceremonies and sometimes ritual sacrifice (Maya and Aztec)Ishtohbohl was always a contest between villages.The object was to throw or carry a ball between two goal posts. (Remind you of anything?The ball could only be touched by rackets.Virtually the only rule was that each team had to have the same number of players.They also played Chunky with a round stone.
21Native American Rulers The Natchez lived between Warren and Wilkinson.Their ruler was known as the “Great Sun”.Had both political and religious authority.He rode around in a litter and had multiple wives.When he died, some of his wives and other members of the tribe were killed and buried with him.This unquestioned authority of the Great Sun made a deep impression on the French explorers who arrived in the New World.
23Periods of European Expansion Four periods of European, overseas expansionInitial period of expansionFifteenth through seventeenth centuriesColonial trade rivalry – England, Spain, FranceSeventeenth through early nineteenth centuryNew empires in Africa and AsiaNineteenth centuryDecolonization – mid-twentieth century
24European ExplorersChristopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492 and sparked the European exploration of the Americas.Explorers were followed by Settlers.This story is full of excitement, adventure, and triumph, As Well As, despair, disappointment, defeat, catastrophe, and death.
26Spanish ExplorersThe Spanish were the first to visit Mississippi betweenHernando de Soto explored the southeastern part of North AmericaHe was after Gold and Silver
27Hernando de SotoExpeditions included six hundred soldiers, many on horseback.They brought hogs with them as a source for food.The Spanish introduced both hogs and horses to North AmericaHe landed near Tampa, FlHe explored as far North as North CarolinaHe then turned West and SouthHe held Indian Chiefs hostage to secure labor, supplies and informationIn 1540 near Mobile he was attacked but the natives did not know how to fight cavalry and they were defeatedHe then led his forces into Mississippi.
28Hernando de SotoIn 1541, another attack by Native Americans forced the expedition further west.In May, the weary soldiers reached the Mississippi River, built boats and crossed it.The exact site has not been determined. Possibly MemphisHe died in His men buried him and then tried to walk to Mexico.That turned out to be too difficult so they returned to the Mississippi River and built boats again.They were often pursued by Native Americans and many diedThe survivors reached the Gulf of Mexico and sailed along the coast to Mexico.Less than half survived the expedition.
29Effects of de Soto The Spanish did not return. They found no Gold They were constantly harassed by the nativesThe most profound effect was unexpected...Disease spread to Native Americans for which they had NO immunity.The extensive trade routes spread the diseases quickly.The population of the Native Americans dramatically decreased because of the diseases.It is estimated that the population of Native Americans decreased by 50% in the century and a half after Columbus landed.
30The Columbian Exchange “Massive movement and interaction of biological organisms after Columbus”People, plants, animals, diseasesBetween Europe, Americas, AfricaShapes world up to present
32French Explorers The French were next to explore Mississippi They settled in Quebec inThey utilized the rivers and lakes to exploreSearched for a water route to the PacificWere most interested in fur trading and proselytizing.
33Louis Jolliet and Jaques Marquette In 1673, sailed down the Mississippi River.Reached present-day Rosedale before realizing that the Ms. River flowed to the Gulf NOT the PacificThey turned around once they realized this
34Rene Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and Henry de Tonti In 1682, they came down the Ms. River and claimed the region for FranceThey befriended the Natchez Indians near VicksburgLa Salle returned to the region and tried to establish a settlement at the mouth of the Ms. RiverHe died trying
35TontiMade several trips up and down the Ms. River looking for La Salle, even leaving a letter for him with the Native Americans at the mouth of the Ms. River
36SettlementSpain, England and France established colonial Settlements in Eastern North America.Spanish were in FloridaEnglish were along the East Coast from New Hampshire to GeorgiaFrench were in CanadaThese Countries competed for colonies and fought wars for control of the world
37European Wars These wars had three major consequences: 1. The territory of each country changed2. The colonists in America sought allies among the Native Americans and different tribes supported different countries3. Mississippi was ruled first by the French, then by the English and finally by the Spanish.The United States did not gain control of Mississippi until 1798.
38French SettlementFrom their base in Quebec, the French tried to control the interior of North AmericaWanted to dominate the fur tradeWanted to confine the English to the East CoastIn order to do that, they had to control the Ohio and Ms. River valleys
39Sieur d’IbervilleIn 1699, the French sent d’Iberville of Canada to the Gulf of Mexico to establish a colony.Finding the Spanish firmly established in Pensacola, he continued west, looking for a good site.He reached Ship Island and then landed on the mainland on February 13, 1699.By March he located the mouth of the Mississippi RiverHe travelled up river past Baton Rouge and met with the tribe Tonti left the La Salle letter with 15 years earlier.He sailed back to Ship Island and then built Fort Maurepas on the present site of Ocean Springs.This was the first European settlement in Mississippi.He left 80 men, his brother Jean-Baptiste le Moyne and Sieur d’Bienville.
40LouisianaIberville made several more trips to the Gulf Coast before dying in 1706On one of those trips he established Mobile.He abandoned Fort Maurepas because of its poor water supply, few trading partners, poor soil and no access to the interior. Basically....It Sucked!Bienville governed and defended the settlements while Iberville was away and established the settlement of New Orleans in 1718.
41French IncursionsFrench Canadians traveled up and down the Ms River and many were attacked along the wayBienville sailed up-river and took several chiefs hostage until the perpetrators had been captured and put to death.He built Fort Rosalie in 1716, at the present site of Natchez and Fort St. Pierre where the Yazoo River joined the Ms. River at present-day VicksburgA small community developed around Fort Rosalie and prospered until 1729.
42The Massacre at Fort Rosalie The local governor demanded that the Natchez surrender a nearby village.In response, they attacked the fort, killed two hundred French, and freed nearly 300 black slavesThe French retaliated with the help of the Choctaw, destroying the Natchez as a separate tribe.Those that survived fled north to the Chickasaw.
43Native Americans and Europeans The relationship between Native Americans and Europeans is a complex subject.Native Americans were NOT united among themselves and often at war with one another.
44Understanding Indian Politics Meanwhile the French and British were almost always at war with one another.In America each side “bought” allies with trade goods, especially guns and gunpowder.The Choctaw sided with the FrenchThe Natchez, Chickasaw and Creek sided with the BritishThe Chickasaw raided Choctaw lands, captured them and took them to Charlestown, SC to be sold as slaves.The Choctaw, in turn, attacked the Chickasaw near Tupelo with French help, but were defeated.
45Mid 18th Century War again broke out between France and Great Britain However, this time, the war started in AmericaKnown as the French and Indian War here ( ) was fought to see who would control the Ohio and Mississippi River ValleysMost of the fighting took place north of MississippiAlthough the Choctaw fought a civil war between supporters of the French and those of the BritishThe French supporters of the Choctaw wonFrance lost the greater warFrance gave up all territory east of the Ms River at the Treaty of Paris, 1763.
46A Formal agreement between two or more nations. DefinitionTreaty:A Formal agreement between two or more nations.
47British Mississippi The British influenced Mississippi before 1763 British traders from Charleston had travelled among the Choctaw and Chickasaw for decades, although the Choctaw preferred the FrenchAfter 1763, Mississippi was an official part of the province of West FloridaIt was an unimportant and remote portion of the British EmpireThe Capital was PensacolaThe colony of Georgia claimed the regionBritain encouraged settlement in West Florida and the Natchez areaVeterans of the war received land grants.
48British MississippiBy 1774, 3000 settlers had taken up residence in the Natchez districtRelations soured between Great Britain and her coloniesJuly 4, 1776 the colonists declared independence from BritainNot until 1778 did it affect the Natchez districtJames Willing travelled down the Mississippi River and seized territory in the Natchez district and then continued on to New Orleans.Spain declared war on Great Britain and captured Natchez in September 1779In 1783, The Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War placing the border at 31 degrees north latitude although Spain held on to Natchez
49Spanish Mississippi The district prospered under Spanish rule The population tripled between (2000 people-6,900 people)The Spanish Governor encouraged American immigration to the district and even gave generous land grants and was tolerant of Protestant religionsOriginally, the land was wooded but once cleared it was quite fertileTobacco and indigo were important but COTTON became the best cash cropIn 1800 the district exported 3 million pounds (1/6th the total exports of all the Americas that year)
50Spanish MississippiFarmers in the district grew corn, feeding people and animals.Hogs and cattle were also raisedThe cattle drives of Texas had their origins in MississippiSpain controlled the district but the U.S. claimed it as its ownThis issue was known as the Right of DepositGetting goods to market was a huge problem:Traveling by road, if any existed in an area, was slowSo it became important to send goods down the rivers to New Orleans for export
51Pinckney’s Treaty Also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo Granted the right of Americans to deposit their goods in New OrleansSpain surrendered its hold over the Natchez districtThe U.S. took control over the region in 1798.
53Mississippi Territory When the U.S. began governing the territory Native Americans made up the largest segment of the populationThey had title to most of the landIt was mainly wooded and home to deer, turkey and bearMany snakes, some deadly, could be found throughout the territoryRoads were little more than trailsThere were no bridgesThe Natchez Trace was the “Highway” to Nashville“Stands” along the Trace served as stores and Motels for weary travelersNatchez was a center of trade and commerce and a major port for sailors and goods
54Territorial Government The NorthWest Ordinance of 1787 established the framework for the government of the territories.The Ordinance provided for the admission of new statesThe exception was that it did NOT allow for slavery but the territories south of the Ohio River did allow slavery.
55The Admission Process Had 3 Stages: 1. The President, with Congressional approval, appointed a territorial governor, 3 judges and a secretary to the governor.The Governor and Judges acted as a territorial legislature.Once the population of adult, free, men reached 5,000 phase 2 began2. The voters could now elect an assembly to pass laws and a territorial representative to Congress. The governor and judges remained.3. Began when the territory had 60,000 people (excluding Indians) Representatives were elected to write a state constitution. After Congress approved it, a new state was admitted.
56Mississippi’s First Government Territorial Governor:Winthrop SargentSecretary to the Governor:John SteeleTerritorial Judges:Peter Bryan BruinDaniel TiltonWilliam McGuire
57Early Problems Sargent almost immediately became controversial Disputes centered on the laws he imposed and the strict nature of his administration.The National political climate drove much of the controversy.Federalists vs RepublicansFederalists led by Thomas Jefferson and James MadisonRepublicans led by John Adams and Alexander HamiltonSargent was a federalistHis opponents in the state were JeffersoniansThere was also a huge rift between merchants in Natchez and their rural customers.
58Change in GovernmentAfter Jefferson won the Presidency he appointed a new Governor (W.C.C. Claiborne) and moved the Capital from Natchez to the town of Washington to appease the farmers. It was highly symbolic.
59Land Ownership of the land in the territory was a major issue. Most of the land was owned by the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribesPressure grew on the U.S. to acquire the land.
60LandSettlers held title to the land from all three previous ruling countries: France, Spain and BritainOthers had purchased land grants from GeorgiaOften these claims overlapped causing confusionMany settlers were Squatters and had cleared and farmed the land, built homes but did not own it.The U.S. government had developed an orderly process to gain land ownership with the Land Ordinance of 1785.Land was divided into townshipsEach township was 6 miles square with 36 sections. Each section was 640 acresSection 16 was given to the people to rent
61Sectionalism Definition: An allegiance to local interests. The Natchez district dominated the politics of the territory.Settlers East of the Pearle River resented the Natchez district and its powerWhites in the East believed that the Natchez whites used their wealth and slaves to run the territorial government for their own benefit.Conflicts arose between whites and then between predominantly white districts and those with African Americans and would continue throughout the history of the state
62Taking ShapeIn 1804, the territory was extended to the Tennessee border after Georgia gave up its claims.The southern border was extended after the U.S. won the war of 1812 and Spain was forced to give up its claimsMississippi’s territorial period only lasted about twenty years but was an exciting eraPersonal quarrels often led to duels and death.During the War of 1812 the U.S. fought the Creek Indians in the Eastern part of the territory.The Creek attack on Fort Mims resulted in the deaths of over 500 men, women and children. Settlers fled to Mobile and Natchez.Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks and reopened the land
63Dividing the state and joining the Union StatehoodDividing the state and joining the Union
64Statehood Congress divided the state in two in 1817 creating Alabama. Once Congress established the borders a constitution was written.Definition:Constitution...Sets up the framework of a government and determines its powers and limitations.The legislative branch was given more power than the executive because of the territory’s history with overzealous governors.Judges were appointed for life.Property owners could vote.Blacks and non-taxpaying-whites were not counted.
65Did You Know?The delegates to the constitutional convention did not submit the new constitution to the voters but sent it to the federal government for approval.Upon approval, Mississippi became the 20th state on December 10, 1817.David Holmes became the first Governor.