Unit 2: Territory to Statehood Complied by Mrs. Felker
You will learn about and be able to: Construct time lines with evenly spaced intervals for years, decades and centuries to show the order of significant events in Ohio history. Explain the causes and effects of the frontier wars of the 1790s, including the Battle of Fallen Timbers, on American Indians in Ohio and the United States. Explain how Ohio progressed from territory to statehood, including the terms of the Northwest Ordinance.
Describe the impact of the expansion of European settlements on American Indians in Ohio. Explain the reasons people came to Ohio including Opportunities in agriculture, mining and manufacturing; family ties; freedom from political and religious oppression Identify ways that people have affected the physical environment of Ohio including: Use of wetlands; use of forests; building farms towns & transportation systems
Europeans viewed Ohio as the frontier even before they began to explore the area in the seventeenth century. The first explorers were French, but British ones soon followed. By the mid eighteenth century, French and British traders arrived in the region, trading for furs with the local American Indian tribes.
French and Indians fought the British over land that is now Ohio. The British won this war, driving the French from the Ohio Country and the rest of North America. The British controlled Ohio’s land for nearly 20 years. The British government attempted to improve relations with the natives by prohibiting white settlement in the Ohio Country.
Americans fought the British to control the 13 colonies and land that is now Ohio. Americans won the 13 colonies and land that is now Ohio. The Treaty of Paris (1783) brought the Revolution to a close, and Great Britain recognized the independence of its former colonies. The new nation secured all of the land east of the Mississippi River except for British possessions in Canada and Spanish territory in Florida.
The American Indians in the Ohio Country took no formal part in the treaty negotiations. The British continued to trade guns and other European manufactured goods for native furs. The British hoped that the Indians, with English weapons, would stop the westward expansion of the newly independent Americans.
On July 13, 1787, the Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance. The act created the Northwest Territory. It was a plan for territories to become states. The Northwest Ordinance required 1. Congress appointed a governor 2. 5,000 white males lived there, elect legislature 3. 60,000 people lived there, apply for statehood 4. State constitution written, asked Congress to be admitted The first state to be formed from the Northwest Territory was Ohio, the seventeenth state of the United States of America.
Climate Warm, Wet spring/summer good for growing crops Long growing season for crops Landforms Fertile soil for growing crops Flat land – easier to grow crops Water Many rivers and streams for irrigating crops Rivers used for transporting crops to other markets Family Other family members were already here
Many of the first settlements were near the Ohio River because these were easy areas to reach and had established routes for transportation. Marietta was the first permanent settlement of the United States of America in the territory north and west of the Ohio River. Originally known as Adelphia, meaning "brotherhood," Marietta was the first settlement founded by the Ohio Company of Associates in the Northwest Territory in 1788.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers was an important victory for the United States Army against natives in the Northwest Territory. General Anthony Wayne was the commander of the United States Army of the the Northwest Territory. The major purpose of this army was to defend American settlers from Indian attack.
As Wayne moved toward the Maumee River, the Indians prepared to attack him in an area known as Fallen Timbers. Blue Jacket, a Shawnee leader, lead the tribes into battle. The Americans had 33 men killed and roughly 100 wounded, while the Indians lost twice that number.
Signed: August 3, 1795, Tribes moved to the northwestern part Ohio. still hunt on the land that they ceded. United States $20,000 worth of goods for signing $9,500 every year in goods. Americans could create trading posts in their territory. Many Indians refused to honor the agreement. White settlers continued to move onto the contested land.
The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain from 1812 until 1815. Causes Great Britain stopped U.S. ships and impress (take by force) sailors from them. England tried to prevent U.S. farmers from trading with the French. British soldiers continued to occupy territory belonging to the United States This victory ended the native threat to settlers.
President Thomas Jefferson signed the Enabling Act of 1802 on April 30, 1802. This act called for the admittance of Ohio as a formal state within the United States as soon as possible. The Enabling Act set Ohio's boundaries. The eastern boundary Pennsylvania state line; southern border Ohio River; the western border would begin where the Great Miami River flows into the Ohio River and extend due northward to the southern tip of Lake Michigan; and the northern boundary border with Canada.
In November 1802, thirty-five delegates met at Ohio's constitutional convention to draft a state constitution. In order for Ohio to become a state, representatives of the territory had to submit a constitution to the United States Congress for approval. The Ohio Constitution of 1803 provided All white men with the right to vote if they paid. There was a governor with a term lasting two years. The legislature, consisting of the General Assembly, contained two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representatives served only a single year before having to be reelected, while senators served two years. The legislature also selected the judges. The Ohio Constitution of 1803 prohibited slavery, honoring one of the Northwest Ordinance's stipulations.
The convention approved the Constitution on November 29, 1802. The U. S. Senate and the House of Representatives approved the Constitution, and on February 19, 1803, Ohio officially became the seventeenth state. The State of Ohio celebrates Ohio statehood on March The reason for this is because the Ohio General Assembly met for the first time on this day in 1803.