Presentation on theme: "Dark Ages to Geometric Period Dark Ages (Architectural Term) = Protogeometric Period ( Pottery Term) 1100 - 900 BCE Geometric Period (Architecture, Sculpture,"— Presentation transcript:
Dark Ages to Geometric Period Dark Ages (Architectural Term) = Protogeometric Period ( Pottery Term) BCE Geometric Period (Architecture, Sculpture, and Pottery) BCE
End of the Mycenaean World Literary tradition from Homer and other ancient epics. Destruction of Troy at the hands of a contingency of Mycenaean warriors. Destruction of Troy. Which Troy is the Troy of the Trojan war? Troy VI? Troy VIIA? Destruction of the mainland palaces (Mycenae, Tiryns, Athens, Gla, Pylos, Thebes, Orchomenos) are all under different circumstances.
Theories for Destruction The Dorian Invasions (Return of the Herakleidae or Internal Revolt?) The Raids of the Sea Peoples Intercity Warfare Drought, Famine, Earthquakes, and Other Natural Disasters.
Dark Age Sites Karphi, Crete* Kavousi, Crete Lefkandi, Euboea* Nichoria, Messenia Oval House, Smyrna*
Karphi Middle Bronze Age to Geometric Unwalled settlement 150 adjoining rooms Great House
Lefkandi - The Heroon Heroon - 10th century Cemetery - 9th century Apsidal (50 m by 10 m) Burial of man, woman, horses
Lefkandi - The Plan
The Centaur Eretria Museum Terracotta 10th c BCE Found in Heroon, split in two pieces, one in each grave.
Isis and Horus Necklace Found in tombs near Heroon at Lefkandi. 11th/10th century. Faience, Egyptian in origin. Isis and Horus statuettes common in Egyptian world.
Protogeometric Pottery Shapes derived from Mycenaean oeuvre: krater, oinochoe, cups, amphorae. Faster wheel. Compass drawn pendent semicircles or concentric circles. Kerameikos cemetery in Athens.
Geometric Cult Sites Dreros on Crete* Eretria - Apollo Daphnephoros* Sparta - Temple of Artemis Orthria Heraion at Samos* The Argive Heraion* Temple of Hera at Perachora* Thermon*
Dreros Temple of Apollo. Earliest known temple BCE. City fortification.
Cult Statues From shelf in temple. Sphyrelaton method: sheet hammered bronze over wood core. Apollo, Leto, Artemis.
Apollo Daphnephoros Four phases of the temple. Apsidal hut. Second structure with apsidal walls. Hekatompedon (100 footer). Geometric Daphnephorion All geometric structures leveled at the end of the 8th c. BCE. Early Archaic hekatompedon ( BCE)
Harbor at Samos
Samos from theAir
Heraion at Samos
Geometric Heraion at Samos Local Carian deity originally. Hera and Zeus married here beside a sacred bush. Hekatompedon - 8th c BCE.
Hera Limenaia at Perachora Corinthiad Again, a port. Apsidal structure. Geometric bronze finds. 9th/8th c BCE.
Perachora - Geometric Plan
Thermon Geometric period, the site became religious. 3 temples. Megaron A and B.
Thermon - Temples Archaic temple built over Megaron B.
Thermon: Megaron B
Geometric Pottery Early - increased geometric patterns. Meanders become more and more prominent. Use as tomb markers in Athens. Very fine clay and fast wheel. Athens at forefront of Geometric pottery production.
Agora “Rich Lady” Burial Belly amphora - female. Granary - symbol of status or wealth? Cremation. 9th c BCE.
Agora Male Burial Cremation Neck amphora Sword around amphora Horse pyxis - symbol of wealth?
Athens 804 Pictorial Narrative. Prothesis and Ekphora. Tomb Marker from the Dipylon gate cemetery. 750 BCE 1.55 m high.
Other narratives Fox hunt? Boeotia. Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 750 BCE
Sculpture Boston MFA Under 8 inches. Bronze Solid Cast 9th c BCE.