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GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis GEOL 751: Carbonate Petrography University of South Carolina Spring 2005 Professor Chris Kendall EWS 304

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Presentation on theme: "GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis GEOL 751: Carbonate Petrography University of South Carolina Spring 2005 Professor Chris Kendall EWS 304"— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis GEOL 751: Carbonate Petrography University of South Carolina Spring 2005 Professor Chris Kendall EWS 304

2 Precipitated Cements & Diagenesis of Carbonates Limestones & Dolomites Limestones & DolomitesTango!

3 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

4 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

5 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Carbonate Cement Fabrics  Crust or rims coat grains  Syntaxial overgrowth – optical continuity with skeletal fabric Echinoid single crystals Brachiopod multiple crystals  Blocky equant - final void fill

6 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

7 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

8 C. G. St. C. Kendall

9 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

10 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement

11 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Carbonate Cement Fabrics C. G. St. C. Kendall

12 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall after RL Folk

13 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement

14 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement

15 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

16 After James

17 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After James

18 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After James

19 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

20 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Botryoidal Aragonite Marine Cement Belize Reef - Cementation

21 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Belize Reef - Cementation Botryoidal Aragonite Marine Cement

22 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene

23 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

24 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

25 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

26 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

27 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

28 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

29 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

30 Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

31 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

32 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Aragonite Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene

33 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Marine Cement Fabrics - Aragonite Needles & Magnesium Calcite Blades Marine Cement Fabrics - Aragonite Needles & Magnesium Calcite Blades C. G. St. C. Kendall

34 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement After James

35 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement After James

36 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Eniwetok – Marshal Islands C. G. St. C. Kendall

37 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Dry Canyon – Almagordo, NMx Stromotactis Cavity Internal Sediment

38 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

39 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Encrusting Renalcis Amphipora Internal Sediment C. G. St. C. Kendall

40 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Encrusting Renalcis Amphipora Internal Sediment C. G. St. C. Kendall

41 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Renalcis Drape Internal Sediment C. G. St. C. Kendall

42 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Renalcis Drape Amphipora Core Cement Fill Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara

43 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Renalcis Drape Amphipora Core Cement Fill

44 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Eniwetok – Pleistocene Isopachus Calcite Cement

45 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Renalcis Drape Brchiopod Core Final Cement Fill Isopachus Marine Cement Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

46 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge

47 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge Renalcis Drape Internal Sediment Spongue Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

48 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Final Cement Fill Renalcis Drape C. G. St. C. Kendall

49 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara

50 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After Phil Playford C. G. St. C. Kendall

51 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara

52 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Canning Basin – Winjana Gorge - Pilara Sediment Fill Final Cement Fill Isopachus Marine Cement Amphipora Core

53 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After Phil Playford

54 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

55 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

56 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

57 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

58 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

59 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

60 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Meniscus Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

61 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Arab D – Jurassic Pendent Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

62 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Eniwetok Atoll – Pleistocene Halimeda Isopachus Cement FW after Marine? C. G. St. C. Kendall

63 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Seven Rivers - Permian - Marine Cavity Cements & Sediment Pendent Cement Internal Sediment C. G. St. C. Kendall

64 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Seven Rivers - Permian - Marine Cavity Cements & Sediment Pendent Cement Internal Sediment C. G. St. C. Kendall

65 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After James

66 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

67 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After James Settings of Carbonate Diagenesis - Flow Chart

68 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

69 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

70 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Meniscus Cement Ooids - Calcite Fresh Water Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

71 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Ooids – Aragonite Dissolution C. G. St. C. Kendall

72 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Radial Ooids – Marine Cement

73 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Gastropod – Test Preserved C. G. St. C. Kendall

74 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Gastropod – Aragonite Marine Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

75 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Gastropod – Dissolution of Test Starts C. G. St. C. Kendall

76 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Gastropod – Solution Ghost of Test C. G. St. C. Kendall

77 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Gastropod – Cement Fill of Test C. G. St. C. Kendall

78 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

79 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Pleistocene – Eniwetok Isopachus Cement C. G. St. C. Kendall

80 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Isopachus Marine Cement Tertiary – Fusilinids C. G. St. C. Kendall

81 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Guadalupian – West Texas Isopachus Marine Cement Fusulinid C. G. St. C. Kendall

82 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

83 After James

84 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

85 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Influx of MagnesiumRichContinentalGroundWaters sea water Evaporation of mixed Waters 1. Aragonite 2. Gypsum 3. Anhydrite 4. Dolomite 5. Halite accumulate in this order

86 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

87 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

88 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

89 C. G. St. C. Kendall

90 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

91 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

92 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Smackover Jurassic Smackover Jurassic Dolomitized Ooids DissolvedOoids C. G. St. C. Kendall

93 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

94 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

95 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

96 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Smackover – Alabama Note Ghosts Of Grains Dolimite Rhombs C. G. St. C. Kendall

97 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

98 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

99 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall Carbonate Porosity - After Choquette & Pray Carbonate Porosity - After Choquette & Pray

100 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

101 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

102 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

103 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

104 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

105 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

106 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Smackover – Alabama Blue Epoxy Ooid Cortex collapse

107 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Ooid Dissolution with Burial Ooid Dissolution

108 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Ooid Cortex Collapse with Burial Ooid Collapse

109 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis C. G. St. C. Kendall

110 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis After James

111 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis

112

113 Stylolites  Dissolution seam(A),  Stylolite (B),  Highly serrate stylolite (C)  Deformed stylolite (D). A few grains are shown schematically to emphasize the change in scale from the previous figure ( after Bruce Railsback ) Two-dimensional cross-sectonal views of

114 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Stylolites  Tangential (A)  flattened (B)  concavo-convex (C)  sutured (D) ( after Bruce Railsback ) Intergranular contacts as seen in thin section

115 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Stylolites After Bruce Railsback

116 Stylolites After Bruce Railsback

117 GEOL 751 Lecture 6: Cementation & Diagnesis Lecture Conclusions  Photosynthesis, warm temperatures & low pressures in shallow water enhance carbonate distribution  Carbonate cementation takes place in the depositional setting  Carbonate cementation takes place from water pumped by tides, waves and evaporation of sea water  CCD controls dissolution of carbonate and its recirculation as a cement  Most diagenesis, dolomitization, & cementation of carbonates takes place at the near surface & trace elements can be used in this determination  Carbonate cementation and diagenesis can take place through the burial cycle  Mineralogy & fabric of cements varies with setting and mineralogy of the substrate  Stylolites develop through burial & solution/compaction

118 End of the Lecture Lets go for lunch!!!


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