Presentation on theme: "English 10 Literature Lesson #3 Mr. Antigone PT. 1 & Civil Disobedience."— Presentation transcript:
English 10 Literature Lesson #3 Mr. Antigone PT. 1 & Civil Disobedience
Antigone Background http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html Oedipus’ two daughters, Antigone and Ismene, accompanied him into exile, while his two sons, Eteocles and Polyneices remained in Thebes, where Jocasta's brother Creon was ruling as regent. When the boys were grown, they agreed to rule Thebes alternately. Eteocles ruled first, but when his year was up he refused to relinquish the throne to Polyneices.
Antigone Background http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html Polyneices, who had married the daughter of the king of Argos, led the Argives and six other cities in an assault on Thebes ( The Seven Against Thebes ). Thebes drove off the attackers, but in the course of the battle the two brothers killed each other. Their uncle Creon assumed the throne and decreed that Eteocles was to be buried with honors but his brother Polyneices was
Antigone Background http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/antigonebg.html to be left unburied, to rot in the sun and be eaten by scavengers. http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Polynices.html
Why Greeks Buried the Dead http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm The ancient Greek beliefs and ceremonies associated with burial were established by the 6th century B.C. In the Odyssey, Homer presents the Underworld as a place deep beneath the earth where countless drifting crowds of shadowy figures stayed.
Why Greeks Buried the Dead http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm It was not a happy place. The ghost of the great hero Achilles told Odysseus that he would rather be alive as a poor serf on earth than the ruler of all the dead. The Greeks believed that at the moment of death the spirit of the dead left the body as a puff of wind.
Why Greeks Buried the Dead http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm The deceased was then prepared for burial according to the time-honored rituals. The omission of burial rites was as an insult to human dignity.
Antigone By Sophocles http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html Funerary Ritual In the classical period, a funeral and the cult of the dead encompassed the following: 1. Prothesis ("laying out"): The body was washed, anointed with olive oil, wrapped in a cloth and laid out upon a couch. Family members sang a mourning-song over the body.
Antigone By Sophocles http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html 2. Ekphora ("carrying out"): The bier was borne to the tomb on a chariot followed by mourners on foot; after the burial, a grave mound was heaped up and the site was marked by a large vase or stele (burial plaque).
Antigone By Sophocles http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/cciv110x/antigone/cciv110.back.antig one.html 3. Visitation: on anniversaries of death and other occasions, the grave mount and tomb were visited and offerings (cakes, oil, wreaths, small vessels, etc.) were made.
Antigone Characters ANTIGONE and ISMENE—daughters of Oedipus and sisters of Polyneices and Eteocles. CREON, King of Thebes. HAEMON, Son of Creon, betrothed to Antigone. EURYDICE, wife of Creon.
TEIRESIAS, the prophet. CHORUS, of Theban elders. GUARD A MESSENGER A SECOND MESSENGER
ANTIGONE Ismene, sister of my blood and heart, See'st thou how Zeus would in our lives fulfill The weird of Oedipus, a world of woes! For what of pain, affliction, outrage, shame, Is lacking in our fortunes, thine and mine? And now this proclamation of today Made by our Captain-General to the State, What can its purport be? Didst hear and heed, Or art thou deaf when friends are banned as foes?
ISMENE To me, Antigone, no word of friends Has come, or glad or grievous, since we twain Were reft of our two brethren in one day By double fratricide; and since i' the night Our Argive leaguers fled, no later news Has reached me, to inspirit or deject. ANTIGONE I know 'twas so, and therefore summoned thee Beyond the gates to breathe it in thine ear.
ISMENE What is it? Some dark secret stirs thy breast. ANTIGONE What but the thought of our two brothers dead, The one by Creon graced with funeral rites, The other disappointed? Eteocles He hath consigned to earth (as fame reports) With obsequies that use and wont ordain, So gracing him among the dead below.
But Polyneices, a dishonored corse, (So by report the royal edict runs) No man may bury him or make lament— Must leave him tombless and unwept, a feast For kites to scent afar and swoop upon. Such is the edict (if report speak true) Of Creon, our most noble Creon, aimed At thee and me, aye me too; and anon He will be here to promulgate, for such As have not heard, his mandate; 'tis in sooth
No passing humor, for the edict says Whoe'er transgresses shall be stoned to death. So stands it with us; now 'tis thine to show If thou art worthy of thy blood or base. ISMENE But how, my rash, fond sister, in such case Can I do anything to make or mar? ANTIGONE Say, wilt thou aid me and abet? Decide.
ISMENE In what bold venture? What is in thy thought? ANTIGONE Lend me a hand to bear the corpse away. ISMENE What, bury him despite the interdict? ANTIGONE My brother, and, though thou deny him, thine No man shall say that I betrayed a brother.
ISMENE Wilt thou persist, though Creon has forbid? ANTIGONE What right has he to keep me from my own? ISMENE Bethink thee, sister, of our father's fate, Abhorred, dishonored, self-convinced of sin, Blinded, himself his executioner. Think of his mother-wife (ill sorted names) Done by a noose herself had twined to death
And last, our hapless brethren in one day, Both in a mutual destiny involved, Self-slaughtered, both the slayer and the slain. Bethink thee, sister, we are left alone; Shall we not perish wretchedest of all, If in defiance of the law we cross A monarch's will?—weak women, think of that, Not framed by nature to contend with men. Remember this too that the stronger rules; We must obey his orders, these or worse. Therefore I plead compulsion and entreat The dead to pardon. I perforce obey
The powers that be. 'Tis foolishness, I ween, To overstep in aught the golden mean. ANTIGONE I urge no more; nay, wert thou willing still, I would not welcome such a fellowship. Go thine own way; myself will bury him. How sweet to die in such employ, to rest,— Sister and brother linked in love's embrace— A sinless sinner, banned awhile on earth, But by the dead commended; and with them I shall abide for ever. As for thee,
Scorn, if thou wilt, the eternal laws of Heaven. ISMENE I scorn them not, but to defy the State Or break her ordinance I have no skill. ANTIGONE A specious pretext. I will go alone To lap my dearest brother in the grave. ISMENE My poor, fond sister, how I fear for thee!
ANTIGONE O waste no fears on me; look to thyself. ISMENE At least let no man know of thine intent, But keep it close and secret, as will I. ANTIGONE O tell it, sister; I shall hate thee more If thou proclaim it not to all the town.
ISMENE Thou hast a fiery soul for numbing work. ANTIGONE I pleasure those whom I would liefest please. ISMENE If thou succeed; but thou art doomed to fail. ANTIGONE When strength shall fail me, yes, but not before.
ISMENE But, if the venture's hopeless, why essay? ANTIGONE Sister, forbear, or I shall hate thee soon, And the dead man will hate thee too, with cause. Say I am mad and give my madness rein To wreck itself; the worst that can befall Is but to die an honorable death.
ISMENE Have thine own way then; 'tis a mad endeavor, Yet to thy lovers thou art dear as ever. [Exeunt]
Civil Disobedience http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html Civil Disobedience is disobeying a law on grounds of moral or political principle. It is an attempt to influence society to accept a dissenting view. Illegal street demonstrations, peaceful occupations of premises or refusal to act are types of civil disobedience.
Civil Disobedience http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html Henry David Thoreau’s "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience," is the American foundational roots for civil disobedience. It states that when one's conscience and the laws clash, then one must follow his or her conscience. http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/facultypages/PamMack/lec124/thoreau.html
Civil Disobedience http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html Emphasis placed on personal conscience and immediate action rather than waiting for legal change. In a democracy authority of a government is derived from the consent of the people. If any form of government becomes destructive, people have the right and duty to alter or abolish it.
Civil Disobedience http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html http://www.civilliberties.org/sum98role.html Anti-war movements The Women's Suffrage Movement Abolition of slavery Introduction of labor laws and unions The Civil Rights Movement The Anti-Nuclear Movement Environmental demonstrations