2 Dionysus & DithyrambThe theatre of ancient Greece evolved from ancient cult of Dionysus, god of human and agricultural fertility.Practiced ritual celebrationsChorus performed “dithyramb,” ode to DionysusBegan as religious ceremony, like hymn, evolved into theatre
3 AmphitheatresWords theatre and ampitheatre evolved from Greek word theatron, describing wooden stands like bleachers. Modern day stadiums mimic these.In 534 BC Dionysus worship became mainstream, festivals lost religious relevance, and the ruler of Athens created a Dionysian theatre festival
4 TragedyGreek tragedies came from the Greek words tragos (goat) and ode (song).Took the place of a sacrifice.Told a story that taught a religious lesson, mainly about those who tempted or tried to deny fate.The tragic protagonist refuses to play by life’s, or ‘fate’s,’ rules, and is therefore punished.
5 Sophocles Won competition in 468 BC. Added third actor to tragic tradition, focused on drama between humans, rather than between humans and gods.Sophocles’ plays usually ironic.Plays focus on arrogance of man and wisdom of accepting fate.Aristotle used his plays in his The Poetics, an analysis of drama.
6 The Poetics by Aristotle Tragic Hero -- A character, usually of high birth, neither totally good nor totally evil, whose downfall is brought about by some weakness or error in judgmentThe hero is noble with virtuous intentionsThe hero makes a choice (or choices) that causes him/her to suffer because of arroganceThe hero comes to a realization before his/her end and grows from it.
7 Oedipus Laius and Jocasta want a son Laius offended the gods - his son would one day kill him and marry JocastaShepherd gives Oedipus to King of CorinthOracle warns Oedipus of his fate (marry mother kill father)Upset by oracle Oedipus leaves and along the way bumps into his real father’s chariot (Laius dies), solves the riddle of a sphinx and Creon gives Oedipus his sister Jocasta’s hand in marriage
8 Oedipus Becomes ruler of Thebes Have children: Eteocles, Polynices, Antigone and IsmeneGoes to Teiresias, the prophet, who tells Oedipus he killed his father and married his motherJocasta hangs herself; Oedipus blinds himself
9 Eteocles and Polynices Ashamed of their father - treat him poorlycurse that they should divide their inheritance by their swordOedipus diesagree to alternate years of ruling Thebes
10 Eteocles and Polynices Eteocles is older so rules firstwon’t give up - claims Polynices has a violent temperPolynices leaves, recruits a foreign army and kills Eteocles in a battleCreon (Antigone’s uncle) is now ruler of Thebes
11 Divine Law Vs. Human/State Law Divine law, or the law of the gods, dictated that “Burial of the dead was an inescapable duty of the living. To deny burial was to deny eternal rest. To deny burial was to deny an ancient and unwritten law of the gods.”Creon, now King of Thebes, creates a law that forbids burial of Polynices, traitor to the kingdom. Anyone who breaks this law will be executed.Antigone is torn between the law of the gods she has always believed in, and the human law Creon has decreed.Antigone makes her choice…
12 Enter AntigoneAntigone must make a choice regarding loyalty to her family, or loyalty to the state and its laws.Antigone faces the consequences…