3Plan view of burial sites at the New York African Burial Ground showing the location of excavated burials (419)
4Research questions: culture & power, not race (see Perry and Blakey pp What are the cultural and geographical roots of the individuals interred in the African Burial Ground?What biological characteristics and cultural traditions remained unchanged and which were transformed during the creation of African American society and culture?What was the physical quality of life for Africans enslaved in New York City during the colonial period and how was it different from the quality of life in their African homeland?What were the modes of resistance and how were they creatively reconfigured and used to resist oppression and to forge a new African American culture?
5Cluster Diagram based on concentrations of trace elements found in teeth and other sources suggests many adults were African born while children were American
11Promotional Illustration for New Amsterdam, 1623 African LaborSkeletal TraumasDental enamel hypoplasiaHigh Lead levelsHypertrophy/ EnthesopathiesLipping (sexed)Promotional Illustration for New Amsterdam, 1623
13Burial 323: Autopsy Victim 1788 Doctor’s RiotsUsually, the students had contented themselves with ripping open the graves of strangers and negroes, about whom there was little feeling; but this winter they dug up respectable people, even young women, of whom they made an indecent exposure.
14Plan view of burial sites at the New York African Burial Ground showing the location of excavated burials in color
15African Burial Ground Research and Recommendation Reports
16Changes in the burial of Africans in Early New York ‘That after the Expiration of four weeks from the dates hereof no Negroes be buried within the bounds & Limits of the Church Yard of Trinity Church, that is to say, in the rear of the present burying place & that no person or Negro whatsoever, do presume after the terme above Limited to break up any ground for the burying of his Negro, as they will answer it at their perill’Trinity Church Vestry Minutes, October 25, 1697(cited in Perry et al 2006:42)
17St. Paul’s colonial cemetery in modern New York City
18Plan view of burial sites at the New York African Burial Ground