Presentation on theme: "This presentation would be used to discuss with teacher colleagues one possible way to teach fourth graders about social inequality issues today by teaching."— Presentation transcript:
This presentation would be used to discuss with teacher colleagues one possible way to teach fourth graders about social inequality issues today by teaching them of slavery in New York. The pictures as well as videos in this presentation can be used in the actual lesson taught to students. This will give other teachers an idea of the different types of media to include in the lesson that will engage students as well as motivate them to learn about this concept.
Grade: 4 Standards: Standard 1, Key Idea 4 History of the United States and New York Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York. Standard 5, Key Idea 4 Civics, Citizenship, and Government Use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the U.S. and other nations; the U.S. Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation.
Key Concepts/Themes: Social Inequality, economic systems, cultural encounters and relationships Essential Question: How did the prosperity of New York depend on slavery and inequality?
Rationale: Throughout this unit students will focus on the major themes of social inequality and encounters and relationships between different cultures and people. They will learn about these themes through the study of slavery and slavery’s contribution to the development and prosperity of New York from 1622-1827. This unit will cause students to think critically and analyze the institution of slavery. They will begin to ask such questions as: Is it right to enslave another human being? Why were slaves needed? Who were the people that benefitted from slavery’s existence? What does this say about the foundation America was built on? Students will connect slavery to social inequalities seen today and why they exist and if they can do anything to change it.
The first slaves to enter New York were brought by the Dutch in 1662. Slavery continued for nearly 200 years in New York, and eventually, New York had a population of slaves second only to Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery had a major economic impact on the city of New York. Under the Dutch, slaves did have some “limited rights” such as a prohibition on being beaten or whipped. They could also petition for their freedom. The Dutch eventually lost control of what was then called New Amsterdam to the British. The English took over control of all aspects of the slave trade from the Dutch, and changed the name of this area to New York.
This site was been considered "the most important historical archeological discovery of the 20th century.” Located on Duane street in lower Manhattan, this site was identified as the final resting place for 419 Africans who lived in New York in the 1700s. However, scientists estimate that there may be as many as many as 20,000 other Africans who are buried in the site. Of the 419 bodies identified, half were children. This site that we now refer to as the African Burial Ground was originally called the Negro Burial Ground. In 1755, the laws were such that blacks in New York were not allowed to be buried within the city bounds of New York. Thus this burial ground was established, and at the time it was located just outside the city limits of New York. The bodies found at this site contained certain clues to the past lives of those buried there, but many questions still remain as well. Some were buried with personal items, although most were not. The bodies themselves gave many clues to the hardships that blacks endured during their time in New York. Some showed by their skeletal structure that they had to undertake extreme manual labor during their lives, in keeping with the slavery experience.
Under the British, slaves worked in all aspects and contributed to the building up of New York. Slaves worked in the shipping industry, as construction workers, as domestic laborers, and in other general labor jobs. Life for slaves under the British in New York was as harsh as it was in southern states. the British repealed many of the laws that gave slaves limited rights under the Dutch. Some laws under the British included the following: in 1682, no more than 4 slaves could meet together. This was thought to prevent uprisings or planned rebellions by slaves. in 1702, this number was reduced to 3.
the penalty for slaves running away to French Canada was death. it was the burden of the black individual to prove they were not slaves. If they could not, they could be arrested, and put in jail. If any white person claimed that the person arrested was their slave, it was generally accepted, and the black person then lost their freedom. During the colonial period, 41% of the city's households had slaves, compared to 6% in Philadelphia and 2% in Boston.
According to the New York Historical Society, slaves were vital to the work of early craftsmen and manufacturers, and many became skilled artisans themselves. They performed almost all the heavy labor of building New York's infrastructure. Slaves constructed Fort Amsterdam and its successors along the Battery. They built the wall from which Wall Street gets its name. They built the roads, the docks, and most of the important buildings of the early city - the first city hall, the first Dutch and English churches, Fraunces Tavern, the city prison and the city hospital.
The first significant turn for slaves under the British happened during the American Revolution. The British needed soldiers, and encouraged slaves to fight on the side of the colonizers. With the promise of earning their freedom, slaves were allowed to fight for the British. During the war, the British initially occupied New York, and because of their military service, many slave soldiers were granted their freedom. Towards the end of the war, once the British were ousted, a law was established that stated all property, including slaves, was to be left in place. The British did not follow this law entirely, and eventually resettled some 300 slaves.
Following the American Revolution, New York became home to the largest population of free blacks in the north. As of 1780, New York was home to nearly 10,000 blacks. The tide was beginning to turn with regard to slavery. In 1785 The New York Manumission Society was formed to begin to prohibit the slave trade. By 1790, one third of all blacks living in New York were free. Further steps were taken to limit the slave trade. By 1799, limited abolition was in place. That is, children of slaves born after July 4, 1799 were considered free, after serving a period of indentured servitude. This service lasted until the child's mid to late 20's. in 1817 New York freed all slaves born before 1799, although the requirement for indentured service remained. Slavery was finally abolished in New York in 1827!
Slavery may have ended in 1827, but many whites still viewed blacks as inferior and made life difficult for them. The following quotes are taken from New York Divided, and specifically newspapers of the time: "Though blacks are among us, they are not of us. Laws may declare a black man to be free; but they cannot make him white." — Harmanus Bleecker, 1831 "We believe that the institution of slavery in the South is no evil — that it is a positive good. It is the natural and proper condition of a black race living in the midst of a white race." — New-York Herald, 1835 "Can a black race, inferior in every respect to a white race, enjoy equality in the same country with the latter?" — New-York Herald, 1835