# Robert Butler Jenda Johnson Kip Ault The Earth & Plate Tectonics Slide show prepared by:

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Robert Butler Jenda Johnson Kip Ault The Earth & Plate Tectonics Slide show prepared by:

How do continents grow? Why do earthquakes occur in nearly every US state? How does deformation occurring in one place affect another place? The continent is a complex mosiac of all geologic history

Earth vs. Egg Earth radius = 6370 km Lithosphere (plate) thickness = 100 km What % of Earth radius is lithosphere? Egg radius = 0.75 inch Egg shell thickness = 0.015 inch What % of egg radius is shell? ~2%

0.016 % of the Earth’s radius is lithosphere. 0.026 % of the egg’s radius is shell.

Convection is like a boiling pot. Heated soup rises to the surface, spreads and begins to cool, and then sinks back to the bottom of the pot where it is reheated and rises again. Plate tectonics Plates are driven by the cooling of the Earth. Gravity provides additional force to move plates. Modified from USGS Graphics

There are a dozen large lithospheric plates (smaller plates not shown). Some plates have continents; some don’t. All are in motion. Tectonic Plates.

Question: What evidence is there for these plate boundaries?

There are thousands of small earthquakes every day “Strong” earthquakes (~M7) occur once a month. >M8 occur about once/year. Seismicity & Distribution of Earthquakes Where are the deepest earthquakes? For earthquakes of the past 2 weeks, go to http://www.iris.edu/seismon/http://www.iris.edu/seismon/

Notice that the earthquakes coincide with plate boundaries, and the deepest quakes (blue) are in subduction zones. Question: Where would you expect to see volcanoes? Modified from USGS Graphics World Seismicity & Plate Tectonics Create your own maps at http://www.iris.edu/quakes/maps.htmhttp://www.iris.edu/quakes/maps.htm

Modified from USGS Graphics This map shows that the locations of subaerial (above sea level) volcanoes correlate with earthquake locations. Seismicity Tectonics and Volcanoes

How fast are the plates moving? Plates move 1-10 centimeters per year (≈ rate of fingernail growth ). Tectonic Plates Modified from USGS Graphics Fingernail growth plotted: http://jclahr.com/science/earth_science/thumbnail/index.html http://jclahr.com/science/earth_science/thumbnail/index.html

What are the tectonic plates? AKA: Lithospheric plate Is the ~100-km-thick surface of the Earth; contains crust and part of the upper mantle; is rigid and brittle; and fractures to produce earthquakes. See video links in notes

What is the asthenosphere? The asthenosphere is the hotter upper mantle below the lithospheric plate; a viscoelastic solid (NOT liquid!!); and can flow like silly putty. USGS Graphics See video links in notes

Deforming Earth’s Crust Types of stress: Extension, Compression, Shear Extension makes faults and regional thinning. (Ex., Basin & Range.) Compression makes faults and folds. (Ex., Rocky Mountains.) Shearing displaces layers horizontally and can result in strike-slip faulting. (Ex., San Andreas Fault, California.) Undeformed beds: no stress applied.

Three Basic Types of Plate Boundaries Divergent Convergent Transform USGS Graphics Using hands to show relative motion

Three Basic Types of Plate Boundaries Divergent Convergent Transform USGS Graphics See video and animation links in notes

Divergent Plate Boundaries New crust is generated as the plates pull apart; Occur on ocean floors and continental interiors; Earthquakes are shallow and small. Fast-spreading Ridge Example: East Pacific Rise (moving apart at about 15 cm/year) Slow-spreading Ridge Examples: Atlantic mid-ocean ridge Basin and Range, USA African Rift Valley Northern Red Sea

Transform Plate Boundaries Lithosphere is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other. Strike-slip fault— San Andreas Fault, California Transform fault— a strike-slip fault between two spreading ridges allows the two plates to move apart. Next slide: What is stress?

http://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/education_and_outreach/animations/27 Beijing>Powerpoints>003 Gulf of CAlif_EarthquakesAndTectonics.mp4

Convergent Plate Boundaries Ocean /Ocean convergence (Marianas) Ocean /Continent convergence (Cascades) Continent/Continent Collision (Himalayas) Plates push together. A) The denser plate subducts, or B) two continental plates crunch together and form high mountains. Next slide: Why and where would earthquakes occur in convergent boundaries?

Young Subducting Plate

Old Subducting Plate

Earthquakes along Convergent Zones with Subducting Oceanic Lithosphere Shallow earthquakes: The most destructive of these occur between the plates on the plate boundary. Intermediate and Deep: Occur only within the subducting oceanic lithosphere. See animation & video links in notes

Island Arc Subduction Zone

Obduction?

Island Arc Subduction Zone

http://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/education_and_outreach/animations/11 003 IRIS Convergent Zone Ocean-Continent

Tibetan Plateau Himalayas Indian Plate Eurasian Plate Sichuan 7.8 Crustal Quake (Overthrust Fault) 2008

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