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Scarce Metals. "The geochemically scarce metals are the enzymes of industry. It is their special properties that have led to such technological marvels.

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Presentation on theme: "Scarce Metals. "The geochemically scarce metals are the enzymes of industry. It is their special properties that have led to such technological marvels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scarce Metals

2 "The geochemically scarce metals are the enzymes of industry. It is their special properties that have led to such technological marvels as the generation and distribution of electricity, the telephone, radio and television, automobiles, aircraft, rockets, computers and the Internet. Yet it is in this same group of metals that many experts once believed shortages and restrictions of natural resources might appear. "

3 Scarce Metals "When the world's annual production of iron has, for many years, been a 100 million tons or more, only four (really five) of the geochemically scarce metals have ever been produced at rates that exceed 1 million tons a year." page 280, Resources of the Earth

4 Scarce Metals Classified on the basis of usage

5 Ferrous or ferro-alloy VVanadium NiNickel Mo Molybdenum Cr Chromium CoCobalt WTungsten

6 Non Ferrous or Base Metal Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Hg, Cd

7 Precious Au Ag PGE—Platinum Group Elements –Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh, Ru

8 Special Metals For example TaTantalum BeBeryllium

9 Ferro Alloy We will start with those metals used in making steel

10 Chromium (Cr) Crustal average96 ppm Uses –Steel industry12-36 wt% –Refractory –Chemical Pigment—yellow to bright orange or deep green Tanning--Cr in solution forms bonds with amino acids in leather—stabilizes organic material

11 Producers 2006 In Millions of metric tons India3.3 Kazakhstan3.6 South Africa8.0 Other5.0

12 Reserves In millions of metric tons India 25 Kazakhstan290 South Africa160 Worldunavailable

13 Chromite: the ore mineral

14 Geological Occurrence Restricted to Igneous Rocks –Mafic—rich in Fe and Mg Podiform Stratiform

15 Location of Chromite Deposits

16 Locations of Podiform Chromite

17 Geologic Map Bushveld Complex

18 Eroding layers

19 Rhythmic layering, Bushveld

20 Vanadium Found in “solid solution” in magnetite. V is mined as a by product of other mining Only makes up 0.014% wt% of crust

21 Uses of Vanadium Tanning and pigments (since 1830) Steel (since 1896) –Only need as much as 0.2 wt%--increases strength

22 Geological Occurrence Mafic layered intrusions Sedimentary from weathering Concentrated in organic matter –Coal 0.02 wt% –Crude oil wt% –Tar sands wt% to 0.05wt%

23 Location of V Deposits

24 Vanadium Production 2007 pdf files of V from USGS2007 pdf

25 Nickel 72 ppm in the crust pure metal Takes its name from: –Discovered in Saxony—Cu Mines –Minors tried to smelt some of the Cu ore Kupfernickel—Old Nick’s Cu

26 Uses Initially electroplating (Michael Faraday) Now > 50% in steel >30% in non ferrous alloys and Superalloys Superalloys

27 Major Producers Russia Canada Australia New Caledonia Indonesia

28 Location of Ni Deposits

29 Geological Occurrence Igneous –Sudbury, Ontario –Ore mineral pentlandite Sedimentary –Laterites (4 to 5 wt% in Ni silicate) –Ore mineral garnierite

30

31 Resources/Reserves We’ve already covered this in our Ni problem earlier on

32 Molybdenum 1.2 ppm in the crust 1778—new element 1893pure metal

33 Uses As a Sulfide –Lubricant –Orange pigment As a Metal –Steel: 0.1 to 10% added to steel Makes it tough and resilient Could replace W steels for high speed cutting tools

34 Producers USGS 2007 PDF filePDF file

35 Geological Occurrence Igneous Plate boundaries--porphyries

36 Environmental Problems Large amounts of waste rock Very large scars on the land

37 Cobalt Has been known as a blue coloring agent for thousands of years 28 ppm in crust Kobolds—Ag Stealing goblins

38 Uses Steel –up to 5% Co in steel Superalloys –Major use Chemical Applications –Coloring, tanning, Co compounds

39 Major Producer/Reserves Kinshasa PDF file

40 Geological Occurrence Sedimentary –Black shales –Laterites

41 Tungsten 1 ppm in crust Highest melting point Highest tensile strength 1855—added to steel in France WC Light filaments

42 Geological Occurrence Igneous Convergent Plate Boundaries

43 Producers China! Pdf file


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