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Scarce Metals.

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Presentation on theme: "Scarce Metals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scarce Metals

2 Scarce Metals "The geochemically scarce metals are the enzymes of industry. It is their special properties that have led to such technological marvels as the generation and distribution of electricity, the telephone, radio and television, automobiles, aircraft, rockets, computers and the Internet. Yet it is in this same group of metals that many experts once believed shortages and restrictions of natural resources might appear. "

3 Scarce Metals "When the world's annual production of iron has, for many years, been a 100 million tons or more, only four (really five) of the geochemically scarce metals have ever been produced at rates that exceed 1 million tons a year." page 280, Resources of the Earth

4 Scarce Metals Classified on the basis of usage

5 Ferrous or ferro-alloy
V Vanadium Ni Nickel Mo Molybdenum Cr Chromium Co Cobalt W Tungsten

6 Non Ferrous or Base Metal
Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Hg, Cd

7 PGE—Platinum Group Elements
Precious Au Ag PGE—Platinum Group Elements Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh, Ru

8 Special Metals For example Ta Tantalum Be Beryllium

9 Ferro Alloy We will start with those metals used in making steel

10 Chromium (Cr) Crustal average 96 ppm Uses Steel industry 12-36 wt%
Refractory Chemical Pigment—yellow to bright orange or deep green Tanning--Cr in solution forms bonds with amino acids in leather—stabilizes organic material

11 In Millions of metric tons
Producers 2006 In Millions of metric tons India 3.3 Kazakhstan 3.6 South Africa 8.0 Other 5.0

12 In millions of metric tons
Reserves In millions of metric tons India 25 Kazakhstan 290 South Africa 160 World unavailable

13 Chromite: the ore mineral

14 Geological Occurrence
Restricted to Igneous Rocks Mafic—rich in Fe and Mg Podiform Stratiform

15 Location of Chromite Deposits
Kelser’s book

16 Locations of Podiform Chromite
GSA Today Article: pp. 4–11 | Abstract | PDF (12.55M) Archean Podiform Chromitites and Mantle Tectonites in Ophiolitic Mélange, North China Craton: A Record of Early Oceanic Mantle Processes Table of Contents: Introduction Geological Setting Discussion and Conclusions Acknowledgments References Cited Figures Options: Create Reference this Article Search CrossRef for: Articles Citing This Article Search Google Scholar for: Jianghai Li Timothy M. Kusky Xiongnan Huang Jianghai Li1, Timothy M. Kusky2, *, Xiongnan Huang3 2002

17 Geologic Map Bushveld Complex

18 Eroding layers

19 Rhythmic layering, Bushveld

20 Vanadium Found in “solid solution” in magnetite.
V is mined as a by product of other mining Only makes up 0.014% wt% of crust

21 Uses of Vanadium Tanning and pigments (since 1830) Steel (since 1896)
Only need as much as 0.2 wt%--increases strength

22 Geological Occurrence
Mafic layered intrusions Sedimentary from weathering Concentrated in organic matter Coal wt% Crude oil wt% Tar sands wt% to 0.05wt%

23 Location of V Deposits Kelser’s book

24 Vanadium Production 2007 pdf files of V from USGS

25 Nickel 72 ppm in the crust 1781--pure metal Takes its name from:
Discovered in Saxony—Cu Mines Minors tried to smelt some of the Cu ore Kupfernickel—Old Nick’s Cu

26 Uses Initially electroplating (Michael Faraday) Now > 50% in steel
>30% in non ferrous alloys and Superalloys

27 Major Producers Russia Canada Australia New Caledonia Indonesia

28 Location of Ni Deposits

29 Geological Occurrence
Igneous Sudbury, Ontario Ore mineral pentlandite Sedimentary Laterites (4 to 5 wt% in Ni silicate) Ore mineral garnierite


31 Resources/Reserves We’ve already covered this in our Ni problem earlier on

32 Molybdenum 1.2 ppm in the crust 1778—new element 1893 pure metal

33 Uses As a Sulfide As a Metal Lubricant Orange pigment
Steel: 0.1 to 10% added to steel Makes it tough and resilient Could replace W steels for high speed cutting tools

34 Producers USGS 2007 PDF file

35 Geological Occurrence
Igneous Plate boundaries--porphyries

36 Environmental Problems
Large amounts of waste rock Very large scars on the land

37 Cobalt Has been known as a blue coloring agent for thousands of years
28 ppm in crust Kobolds—Ag Stealing goblins

38 Uses Steel Superalloys Chemical Applications up to 5% Co in steel
Major use Chemical Applications Coloring, tanning, Co compounds

39 Major Producer/Reserves
Kinshasa PDF file

40 Geological Occurrence
Sedimentary Black shales Laterites

41 Tungsten 1 ppm in crust Highest melting point Highest tensile strength
1855—added to steel in France WC Light filaments

42 Geological Occurrence
Igneous Convergent Plate Boundaries

43 Producers China! Pdf file

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