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Minerals. Feb. 18,2014 What are four of the five questions to ask if you are trying to determine if you have a mineral?

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals. Feb. 18,2014 What are four of the five questions to ask if you are trying to determine if you have a mineral?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals

2 Feb. 18,2014 What are four of the five questions to ask if you are trying to determine if you have a mineral?

3 For our bodies, to build our homes, roads, tools, phones, televisions,_______________, and much more. COMPUTERS

4 Glass is made from ___ minerals Silica Limestone Magnesium Boric acid Soda _____________ 40 billion glass containers/year in USA 35 % are recycled Minerals make-up many practical parts of our lives 6 ALUMINUM

5 Gold in North Carolina Gold has been an important part of North Carolinas history since _______, the date of the first discovery of gold in the United States. North Carolina was the nations ________ gold- producing state from 1803 until 1828, and continued as a leading producer until 1848 when gold was discovered in California ONLY

6 Salt Early people collected salt before they understood how important the mineral is for ____________ Mediterranean-salt cakes were used as ___________ Greeks traded salt for slaves England flourished when fuel for boiling brine changed from wood to ______, brine was used for food preservation. SURVIVAL MONEY COAL

7 Minerals are mined for our use

8 Other than Gold some minerals were of ________________ importance; for example, feldspar, zircon, and magnetite. Gemstones were found, notably the gem varieties of corundumruby and sapphire and _____________, the gem variety of beryl. By 1875, 140 minerals had been identified as occurring in North Carolina. In an early State Geological Survey report was accompanied by the statement: …a variety of highly interesting and commercially important minerals and ores, which is ____________ than that of any other State in the Union [is found in North Carolina]. INDUSTRIAL EMERALD GREATER

9 What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic ________ that has a definite crystalline structure. Quartz Geode SOLID

10 It is a mineral if: 5 questions can be answered. Is it nonliving material? Is it a solid? Is it formed in _________? Does it have a crystalline structure? Can you write a chemical formula for it? NATURE

11 Mineral Structure Minerals are made up of ____________. There are 92 naturally occurring elements. All minerals contain 1 or more elements. Elements are pure substances that can not be _______down into simpler substances. ELEMENTS BROKEN

12 Atoms Elements are made up of only ______ kind of atom. An atom is the _____________ part of an element that has all the properties of that element. ONE SMALLEST

13 Compounds A compound is a substance made of ______ or more elements that have been chemically joined or bonded. Ex: Halite (NaCl) common table salt Chlorine atoms Sodium atoms TWO

14 Atomic structure determines the minerals characteristics. Salt or halite always has a cubic form and tastes salty.

15 The one electron on the outer shell is given up This leaves the sodium atom with more protons, +1 The one electron is added to Chlorines outer shell This leaves the chlorine atom with one more electron, -1 cation anion Cations and Anions

16 Native Elements Minerals that are composed of only one element are called a _________ elements. Can you think of others? The atomic structure of Gold. Only Gold (Au) atoms. The crystal structure of Gold. Crystals of The mineral Gold. NATIVE

17 Two Groups of Minerals Minerals are classified based on their ___________ compositions. These groups are the: Silicates Nonsilicates CHEMICAL

18 Silicate Minerals The two most common elements of the earths crust are __________ and oxygen Silicate minerals have these 2 elements (Si) and (O) ______% of the Earths crust are made from silicate minerals Si and O combine with other minerals such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K to make other silicate minerals SILICON 90

19 Mineral GroupCharacteristicsExamples Silicates Contain oxygen & silica The most abundant group of minerals Quartz, mica MICA Quartz

20 Mineral GroupCharacteristicsExamples Non-Silicates Make up only 5% of the Earths crust Include some of the most important minerals iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies Silver Gold RubyIron Copper Diamond Iron

21

22 What is the difference between a mineral and a rock? Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a ______________ chemical composition and a characteristic crystalline structure. A mineral may be a single element such as copper (Cu) or gold (Au), or it may be a compound made up of a number of elements. About _________ different minerals have been described. Ex, NaCl, SiO 2 Au, etc. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals (heterogenous) a ____________. DEFINITE 2,500 MIXTURE

23 Granite: individual minerals make-up the rock and the rocks make up the Mountains. Minerals are the building block of Rocks mica

24 Mineral Formation Cooling of magma: crystallization Evaporation: salt Hydrothermal MINERAL CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ORIGIN igneous minerals = form by cooling of _________ rock ("crystallization") sedimentary minerals = low-temp. precipitation or chemical alteration metamorphic minerals = chemical alteration at Hi-Pressure/Temp. MOLTEN


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