2Feb. 18,2014What are four of the five questions to ask if you are trying to determine if you have a mineral?
3For our bodies, to build our homes, roads, tools, phones, televisions,_______________, and much more.COMPUTERS
4Glass is made from ___ minerals Minerals make-up many practical parts of our livesGlass is made from ___ minerals6SilicaLimestoneMagnesiumBoric acidSoda_____________40 billion glass containers/year in USA35 % are recycledALUMINUM
5Gold in North CarolinaGold has been an important part of North Carolina’s history since _______, the date of the first discovery of gold in the United States. North Carolina was the nation’s ________ gold-producing state from 1803 until 1828, and continued as a leading producer until 1848 when gold was discovered in California.1799ONLY
6SaltEarly people collected salt before they understood how important the mineral is for ____________Mediterranean-salt cakes were used as ___________Greeks traded salt for slavesEngland flourished when fuel for boiling brine changed from wood to ______, brine was used for food preservation.SURVIVALMONEYCOAL
8Other than Gold some minerals were of ________________ importance; for example, feldspar, zircon, and magnetite.Gemstones were found, notably the gem varieties of corundum—ruby and sapphire and _____________, the gem variety of beryl.By 1875, 140 minerals had been identified as occurring in North Carolina. In an early State Geological Survey report was accompanied by the statement: “…a variety of highly interesting and commercially important minerals and ores, which is ____________ than that of any other State in the Union [is found in North Carolina].”INDUSTRIALEMERALDGREATER
9What is a Mineral?A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic ________ that has a definite crystalline structure.SOLIDQuartzGeode
105 questions can be answered. It is a mineral if:5 questions can be answered.Is it nonliving material?Is it a solid?Is it formed in _________?Does it have a crystalline structure?Can you write a chemical formula for it?NATURE
11Mineral Structure Minerals are made up of ____________. There are 92 naturally occurringelements.All minerals contain 1 or moreElements are pure substancesthat can not be _______down into simpler substances.ELEMENTSBROKEN
12Atoms Elements are made up of only ______ kind of atom. An atom is the _____________ part of an element that has all the properties of that element.ONESMALLEST
13Compounds Chlorine atoms Sodium atoms A compound is a substance made of ______ or more elements that have been chemically joined or bonded.Ex: Halite (NaCl) common table saltTWOChlorine atomsSodium atoms
14Atomic structure determines the minerals characteristics Atomic structure determines the minerals characteristics. Salt or halite always has a cubic form and tastes salty.
15Cations and Anions The one electron on the outer shell is given up This leaves the sodium atom with more protons, +1The one electron is added to Chlorines outer shellThis leaves the chlorine atom with one more electron, -1cationanion
16Native ElementsMinerals that are composed of only one element are called a _________ elements. Can you think of others?The atomicstructure ofGold. Only Gold(Au) atoms.The crystalstructure ofGold.NATIVECrystals ofThe mineralGold.
17Two Groups of MineralsMinerals are classified based on their ___________ compositions. These groups are the:SilicatesNonsilicatesCHEMICAL
18Silicate MineralsThe two most common elements of the earth’s crust are __________ and oxygenSilicate minerals have these 2 elements (Si) and (O)______% of the Earth’s crust are made from silicate mineralsSi and O combine with other minerals such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K to make other silicate mineralsSILICON90
19Mineral Group Characteristics Examples SilicatesContain oxygen & silicaThe most abundant group of mineralsQuartz, micaMICAQuartz
20Mineral Group Characteristics Examples Non-SilicatesMake up only 5% of the Earth’s crustInclude some of the most important mineralsiron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubiesSilverCopperDiamondGoldIronRubyIron
22What is the difference between a mineral and a rock? Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a ______________ chemical composition and a characteristic crystalline structure. A mineral may be a single element such as copper (Cu) or gold (Au), or it may be a compound made up of a number of elements. About _________ different minerals have been described. Ex, NaCl, SiO2 Au, etc.Rocks are made up of one or more minerals (heterogenous) a ____________.DEFINITE2,500MIXTURE
23Minerals are the building block of Rocks micaGranite: individual minerals make-up the rock and the rocks make up the Mountains.
24Mineral Formation Cooling of magma: crystallization Evaporation: salt HydrothermalMINERAL CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ORIGINigneous minerals = form by cooling of _________ rock ("crystallization")sedimentary minerals = low-temp. precipitation or chemical alterationmetamorphic minerals = chemical alteration at Hi-Pressure/Temp.MOLTEN