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Unit 2- Minerals, Rocks, Soils and Weathering

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1 Unit 2- Minerals, Rocks, Soils and Weathering

2 Feb. 18,2014 What are four of the five questions to ask if you are trying to determine if you have a mineral?

3 For our bodies, to build our homes, roads, tools,
phones, televisions,_______________, and much more. COMPUTERS

4 Glass is made from ___ minerals
Minerals make-up many practical parts of our lives Glass is made from ___ minerals 6 Silica Limestone Magnesium Boric acid Soda _____________ 40 billion glass containers/year in USA 35 % are recycled ALUMINUM

5 Gold in North Carolina Gold has been an important part of North Carolina’s history since _______, the date of the first discovery of gold in the United States.  North Carolina was the nation’s ________ gold-producing state from 1803 until 1828, and continued as a leading producer until 1848 when gold was discovered in California. 1799 ONLY

6 Salt Early people collected salt before they understood how important the mineral is for ____________ Mediterranean-salt cakes were used as ___________ Greeks traded salt for slaves England flourished when fuel for boiling brine changed from wood to ______, brine was used for food preservation. SURVIVAL MONEY COAL

7 Minerals are mined for our use

8 Other than Gold some minerals were of ________________ importance; for example, feldspar, zircon, and magnetite. Gemstones were found, notably the gem varieties of corundum—ruby and sapphire and _____________, the gem variety of beryl. By 1875, 140 minerals had been identified as occurring in North Carolina. In an early State Geological Survey report was accompanied by the statement: “…a variety of highly interesting and commercially important minerals and ores, which is ____________ than that of any other State in the Union [is found in North Carolina].” INDUSTRIAL EMERALD GREATER

9 What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic ________ that has a definite crystalline structure. SOLID Quartz Geode

10 5 questions can be answered.
It is a mineral if: 5 questions can be answered. Is it nonliving material? Is it a solid? Is it formed in _________? Does it have a crystalline structure? Can you write a chemical formula for it? NATURE

11 Mineral Structure Minerals are made up of ____________.
There are 92 naturally occurring elements. All minerals contain 1 or more Elements are pure substances that can not be _______down into simpler substances. ELEMENTS BROKEN

12 Atoms Elements are made up of only ______ kind of atom.
An atom is the _____________ part of an element that has all the properties of that element. ONE SMALLEST

13 Compounds Chlorine atoms Sodium atoms
A compound is a substance made of ______ or more elements that have been chemically joined or bonded. Ex: Halite (NaCl) common table salt TWO Chlorine atoms Sodium atoms

14 Atomic structure determines the minerals characteristics
Atomic structure determines the minerals characteristics. Salt or halite always has a cubic form and tastes salty.

15 Cations and Anions The one electron on the outer shell is given up
This leaves the sodium atom with more protons, +1 The one electron is added to Chlorines outer shell This leaves the chlorine atom with one more electron, -1 cation anion

16 Native Elements Minerals that are composed of only one element are called a _________ elements. Can you think of others? The atomic structure of Gold. Only Gold (Au) atoms. The crystal structure of Gold. NATIVE Crystals of The mineral Gold.

17 Two Groups of Minerals Minerals are classified based on their ___________ compositions. These groups are the: Silicates Nonsilicates CHEMICAL

18 Silicate Minerals The two most common elements of the earth’s crust are __________ and oxygen Silicate minerals have these 2 elements (Si) and (O) ______% of the Earth’s crust are made from silicate minerals Si and O combine with other minerals such as Al, Fe, Mg, and K to make other silicate minerals SILICON 90

19 Mineral Group Characteristics Examples
Silicates Contain oxygen & silica The most abundant group of minerals Quartz, mica MICA Quartz

20 Mineral Group Characteristics Examples
Non-Silicates Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust Include some of the most important minerals iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies Silver Copper Diamond Gold Iron Ruby Iron


22 What is the difference between a mineral and a rock?
Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a ______________ chemical composition and a characteristic crystalline structure. A mineral may be a single element such as copper (Cu) or gold (Au), or it may be a compound made up of a number of elements. About _________ different minerals have been described. Ex, NaCl, SiO2 Au, etc. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals (heterogenous) a ____________. DEFINITE 2,500 MIXTURE

23 Minerals are the building block of Rocks
mica Granite: individual minerals make-up the rock and the rocks make up the Mountains.

24 Mineral Formation Cooling of magma: crystallization Evaporation: salt
Hydrothermal MINERAL CLASSIFICATION  BASED ON ORIGIN igneous minerals = form by cooling of _________ rock ("crystallization") sedimentary minerals = low-temp. precipitation or  chemical alteration metamorphic minerals = chemical alteration at Hi-Pressure/Temp. MOLTEN

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