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Earth Science : The Final PSAE Frontier. Which Came First… Question: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Answer: NEITHER! –Why? We needed a planet.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science : The Final PSAE Frontier. Which Came First… Question: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Answer: NEITHER! –Why? We needed a planet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science : The Final PSAE Frontier

2 Which Came First… Question: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Answer: NEITHER! –Why? We needed a planet before there was life!

3 We Came From Dust… The planet Earth was formed from rocks and dust in space collided and began to spin. The spinning rocks and dust were called a nebula. When the clumps began to stick as they hit each other, we called them planetesimals…and eventually planets!

4 Nebula and Planetesimals

5 How is the Earth Like an Onion? A. It stinks. B. It makes you cry. C. You leave it out in the sun, it get all brown, start sproutin’ little white hairs. D. It has layers.

6 The Earth’s Layers 1. Crust- the outermost layer that we live on top of (also called the LITHOSPHERE) –More dense under the ocean, less dense under land. –Broken in pieces 2. Mantle- underneath the crust –Mostly magma (liquid rock) –Convection-heat is transferred through the magma. 3. Core- the center of the Earth –Inside= solid, outside= liquid

7 Layers of the Earth

8 Shake it Like a Polaroid Picture… Plate tectonics- the movement of the liquid mantle causes the pieces of the crust to move. Continental Drift- the continents used to all be together in a “supercontinent”, but have been moving apart for millions of years! What was the name of the supercontinent?

9 Continental Drift Earthquakes Media Clip

10 Proof? You Can’t Handle the Proof! The sides of the continents fit together like pieces of a puzzle. Index Fossils- fossils know to have only existed at a certain place within a certain time…but are found across oceans form each other. Similar organisms found in very remote, specific locations today. Ancient climates. Ocean floor evidence.

11 Ocean Floor Evidence Three types of movement create distinct features that support the idea that the crust of the Earth is moving. –1–1. Convergent Plate Boundaries- 2 pieces of the crust come together –2–2. Divergent Plate Boundaries- 2 pieces of the crust spread apart –3–3. Transform Boundaries- 2 pieces of the crust slide past each other

12 Convergent Boundary Ocean Plate – Ocean Plate- ridge formed

13 Convergent Boundary Ocean Plate – Continental Plate- trench formed on ocean side and volcanic mountains on continent as the OCEAN CRUST slides under the CONTINENT

14 Divergent Boundary Two plates spread apart and magma comes up between them, forming a ridge.

15 Transform Boundary 2 plates slide against each other, causes earthquakes.

16 It’s Gettin’ Hot in H’re…The Volcano That Is Three types of volcanoes, depending on the top of rock that they spew out. CompositionSilica Content ViscosityGas Content Tendecy to Form Pyroclastics (ejected rock fragments) Volcanic Landform Basaltic50%Little1-2%LeastShield Volcanoes Basalt Plateaus Cinder Cones Andesitic60%Medium3-4%IntermediateComposite Cones Rhyolitic70%Greatest4-6%GreatestPyroclastic Flows Volcanic Domes Magma Composition

17 Basaltic Volcanoes Shield Volcano-HawaiiBasalt Plateau-Washington Cinder Cone-Oregon

18 Andesic Volcanoes Composite Cone-Alaska

19 Rhyolitic Volcanoes Volcanic Dome-California Pyroclastic Flow Mt. St. Helens BEFORE eruption Mt. St. Helen AFTER eruption

20 Shake ‘N’ Bake…It’s an Earthquake! Elastic Rebound Hypothesis- earthquakes happen because a rock deforms as it moves and eventually snaps back to position. –F–Focus- the place where the earthquake starts –E–Epicenter-the place on the Earth’s surface right above the focus –F–Fault- a break or crack in the Earth’s surface and mantle where it has moved.

21 Richter Scale Measures intensity of an earthquake by measuring the amplitude, or height of the seismic waves that it creates.

22 Mercalli Scale Measures the intensity of an earthquake by how much damage is caused.

23 Let’s ROCK ‘N’ Roll! The Earth is made of three types of rock, identified by how they form. –1. Igneous rock –2. Sedimentary rock –3. Metamorphic Rock

24 Igneous Rock Made when lava at the surface and magma in the crust when it cools. –Cools slowly, usually underground = BIG crystals form Called plutonic or intrusive Example= granite –Cools quickly, usually at the surface) = small crystals form Called volcanic or extrusive Example= Obsidian

25 Sedimentary Rocks Formed because processes weather rocks (like wind and flowing water) or when rocks are buried under pressure, usually at the surface. –Examples= limestone and shale

26 Metamorphic Rocks Formed when there is a HUGE change in pressure and temperature –Example = marble

27 Rock Cycle

28 Whether It’s Weather or Climate. 1. The past few days have been rainy. 2. Winter was cold this year. 3. For the past 50 years, we’ve had warm falls. 4. April is supposed to be dry in Illinois this year. 5. We get snow in the winter. 6. It is always cooler in Canada than in Chicago. 7. The lee side of the mountain does not get much rain.

29 Weather/Climate, What’s The Difference Anyway? Weather- Climate-

30 The Sun is a Mass of Incandescent Gas…A Gigantic Nuclear Furnace That Affects Our Weather and Climate The Earth gets its heat energy from the solar radiation that enters through the atmosphere. –Seasons change because during different times of the year, different parts of the Earth are tilted towards the sun. –On a day to day basis, clouds may block some of the sun’s radiation.

31 Tilt of the Earth

32 The Motion of the Ocean…Affects Weather and Climate Currents from warmer waters can make an area warmer. Currents from cooler waters can make an area cooler.

33 Global Winds…More than a Bunch of Hot Air Global Winds act to balance out the temperatures on the Earth by bringing warm air to higher latitudes (further from the equator) and cool air to the lower latitudes (closer to the equator).

34 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 1.Continental Crust is found on top of Ocean Crust because: A. Oceanic Crust is thicker, so it must be on the bottom. B. Oceanic Crust is older, so it must be on the bottom. C. Oceanic Crust is denser, so it must be on the bottom. D. Oceanic Crust is made of mostly igneous rock, so it must be on the bottom.

35 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 2. What happens at a subduction zone where an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide? A. The denser continental plate subducts under the oceanic plate causing seafloor spreading. B. The plates will transform and cause an earthquake with a well-defined focus. C. Oceanic and continental plates cannot collide, because they are in different regions. D. The denser oceanic plate subducts under the continental plate and forms a trench along a continent.

36 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 3. At which of the plate boundaries is an earthquake most common? A. Divergent B. Convergent C. Transform D. Intraplate

37 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 4. Motion is caused by a force. The force behind plate tectonics can be best explained by the fact that the Earth’s plates are in motion due to: A. conduction of long range waves of uv radiation. B. transfer of energy from the cool ocean currents to the warm land masses. C. convection currents in the Earth’s mantle. D. cells of cooling magma that rise to the surface and push the plates around.

38 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 5. A certain igneous rock called obsidion is broken down by weathering and deposited as sediments. What is most likely the next rock type to form from the sediment? A. It will remain igneous. B. It will become sedimentary rock. C. It will become metamorphic rock. D. It will melt and become a component of magma.

39 PSAE: The FINAL Earth Science Review…Can You Dig It? 6. Why does seafloor spreading help to support the concept of continental drift? A. new ocean crust is formed, causing there to be more ocean B. two plates are moving apart and pushing the plates around them C. ridges are formed D. sea animals avoid these areas because they are afraid that they will drift away from the continent that they are most closely associated with

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