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Processes of Lithosphere. Lithosphere Rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet – On earth, comprises the crust and the upper mantle.

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Presentation on theme: "Processes of Lithosphere. Lithosphere Rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet – On earth, comprises the crust and the upper mantle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Processes of Lithosphere

2 Lithosphere Rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet – On earth, comprises the crust and the upper mantle

3

4 The Rock Cycle Thinking about relationships among the major rock groups

5 5 Major Rock Groups Igneous – Formed from a melt (molten rock) – Plutonic (intrusive):slow cooling and crystallization – Volcanic (extrusion): quick cooling at the surface Sedimentary – Formed at the Earth ’ s surface Metamorphic – Changed by pressure, temperature and fluids.

6 Fig. 2.9 MAGMA

7 7 Crystallization IGNEOUS

8 8 MAGMA IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization

9 9 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization

10 10 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Uplift Crystallization Weathering

11 Chemical – changing composition (acid rain) Physical – Breaking apart rocks, moving soils, etc Soil is result of weathering of rocks and includes weathered particles

12 12 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT Uplift Crystallization Weathering SEDIMENT

13 13 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

14 14 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

15 15 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

16 16 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition Can you see any shortcuts?

17 17 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

18 The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth The energy from the sun It involves processes on the Earth ’ s surface as well as the Earth ’ s interior. In Conclusion…

19 The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

20 Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: – Core – Mantle – Crust Inner core Outer core Mantle Crust

21 The Crust This is where we live! The Earth’s crust is made of: Continental Crust - buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust) Oceanic Crust - dense (sinks under continental crust)

22 What is Plate Tectonics?

23 If you look at a map of the world, you may notice that some of the continents could fit together like pieces of a puzzle.

24 Plate Tectonics The Earth’s crust is divided into 12 major plates which are moved in various directions. This plate motion causes them to collide, pull apart, or scrape against each other. Each type of interaction causes a characteristic set of Earth structures or “tectonic” features. The word, tectonic, refers to the deformation of the crust as a consequence of plate interaction.

25 World Plates

26 What are tectonic plates made of? Plates are made of rigid lithosphere. The lithosphere is made up of the crust and the upper part of the mantle.

27 Plate Movement “Plates” of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells

28 Divergent Convergent Transform Three types of plate boundary

29 Spreading ridges – As plates move apart new material is erupted to fill the gap Divergent Boundaries

30 Iceland has a divergent plate boundary running through its middle Iceland: An example of continental rifting

31 There are three styles of convergent plate boundaries – Continent-continent collision – Continent-oceanic crust collision – Ocean-ocean collision Convergent Boundaries

32 Forms mountains, e.g. European Alps, Himalayas Continent-Continent Collision

33 Himalayas

34 Called SUBDUCTION Area is called the subduction zone Continent-Oceanic Crust Collision

35 Where plates slide past each other Transform Boundaries Above: View of the San Andreas transform fault

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37 …what’s the connection? Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics…

38 Volcanism is mostly focused at plate margins Pacific Ring of Fire

39 - Subduction - Rifting - Hotspots Volcanoes are formed by:

40 Subduction Form new melt that will rise through the crust to be erupted at the surface

41 Rifting Form new melt that will rise through the crust to be erupted at the surface

42 Hot Spots Does not occur along a plate boundary. Form in the middle of tectonic plates

43 Volcanic Eruptions Pyroclastic Flow – cloud of ash and debris – Travel at hundreds of mph – Hundreds of degrees

44 Volcanic Eruptions Lahar – mud flows which are very destructive to landscape

45 Volcanic Eruptions “Ash” emitted includes small stones Very dense Chokes life Blots out sunlight Causes wide range temperature drops om/watch?v=UK-- hvgP2uY

46 …what’s the connection? Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics…

47 As with volcanoes, earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the globe At the boundaries between plates, friction causes them to stick together. When built up energy causes them to break, earthquakes occur. Figure showing the distribution of earthquakes around the globe

48 Where do earthquakes form? Figure showing the tectonic setting of earthquakes

49 Fault Lines Strike – slip Reverse Normal

50 Earthquake Anatomy Focal point – where the actual earth quake originated underground Epicenter – location of earth quake on earth’s surface – Above the focal point

51 Earthquake Anatomy P Waves (primary) – waves which travel fastest, first, and moves through any material – Reach seismographs – Moves land back and forth S Waves (secondary) – actual surface waves which travel slower and only moves through solids – Moves land up and down /primary-and-secondary-waves

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53 Results.. Land destruction/alteration Fire (breaking of gas and power lines) Buildings destroyed Tsunami’s

54 Tsunami “Harbor Wave”

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