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‘SIDE VIEW’ ‘TOP VIEW’ Solar System on outside of Orion Arm (25,000 light years from centre) 100,000 ly.

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Presentation on theme: "‘SIDE VIEW’ ‘TOP VIEW’ Solar System on outside of Orion Arm (25,000 light years from centre) 100,000 ly."— Presentation transcript:

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3 ‘SIDE VIEW’ ‘TOP VIEW’ Solar System on outside of Orion Arm (25,000 light years from centre) 100,000 ly

4 Nebular hypothesis Important theorists: Emanuel Swedenborg (1734), Immanuel Kant (1755), Pierre-Simon Laplace (1796), Victor Safronov (1972) – Solar nebular disk model (SNDM) Evidence: observations systems at varying stages 1.Nebula: Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) results from collision(s) or explosion of dying star 3.H and He condense into Sun 4.Disk of matter (many elements) around sun 5.Disk slowly accretes into clumps (planetesimals) that also contain heavier elements 6.planetesimals  planetoids  planets and satellites Hubble Space Telescope view of a new solar system 1500 l-y away in the Orion Nebula

5 Eons, Eras, Periods and Epochs Superposition: youngest rocks superimposed on older rocks “Relative time” Dating by radioactive isotopes Half-life: time for ½ of unstable isotopes to decay “Absolute time” Uniformitarianism: “The same physical processes active in the environment today have been operating throughout geologic time” Hutton (1795), Lyell (1830)

6 Source: University of Calgary Red ovals indicate major extinction events: when extinction rate greatly exceeds speciation rate

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8 The Earth in cross-section

9 Upper mantle and lithosphere

10 Mountain masses displace mantle material Isostatic adjustment due to loss of mass by erosion Deformation from sediment load ISOSTASY Elevation of tectonic plates determined by density/thickness

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12 Mineral A natural, inorganic compound with a specific chemical formula and a crystalline structure Examples silicates (quartz, feldspar, clay minerals), oxides (eg., hematite) carbonates (eg., calcite)

13 An assemblage of minerals bound together Igneous (solidify & crystallize from molten magma/lava) Sedimentary (settling & cementation) Metamorphic (altered under pressure)

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15 from magma (molten rock beneath the surface) intrusive or extrusive (from lava)

16 Laccolith Dike Sill Batholith plutons

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19 Existing rock or organic material is digested by weathering, picked up by erosion, moved by transportation, and deposited at river, beach and ocean sites. Lithification follows (cementation, compaction and hardening) Laid down in horizontally-layered beds

20 Conglomeratelargest clasts Sandstone sand cemented together Siltstonederived from silt Shale mud/clay compacted into rock Limestone calcium carbonate, bones and shells cemented or precipitated in ocean waters Coal ancient plant remains compacted into rock

21 note the shells

22 Any type of rock is transformed, under pressure and increased temperature Harder and resistant to weathering Produced from any rock type by: Compressional forces due to plate collisions Regional and contact metamorphism

23 Shale Slate GraniteGneiss Basalt Schist Limestone, dolomiteMarble SandstoneQuartzite

24 Crustal Movements

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26 Continents are adrift due to convection currents in the asthenosphere Mantle movements result in plate migration 225 M BP: Pangaea

27 Continents Adrift

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29 Age of mid-oceanic ridge magnetic stripes Subduction zones “Ring of fire” Age and thickness of oceanic crust Fossil Record (plant and animal) Distribution of marsupials vs. placentals

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31 Mid-oceanic ridge magnetic stripes

32 See: (animation)

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34 Divergent Boundaries (constructional) Convergent Boundaries (destructional) Transform Fault Boundaries

35 URL:

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38 Source: USGS

39 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

40 The technique of _____ involves the measurement of decaying elements and stable end products. a)radiometric dating b)relative dating c)superposition d)punctuated equilibrium e)uniform dating

41 The technique of _____ involves the measurement of decaying elements and stable end products. a)radiometric dating b)relative dating c)superposition d)punctuated equilibrium e)uniform dating

42 Place the major concentric layers of Earth in order from outermost to innermost. a)mantle > outer core > inner core > crust b)inner core > outer core > mantle > crust c)outer core > crust > inner core > mantle d)crust > outer core > inner core > mantle e)crust > mantle > outer core > inner core

43 Place the major concentric layers of Earth in order from outermost to innermost. a)mantle > outer core > inner core > crust b)inner core > outer core > mantle > crust c)outer core > crust > inner core > mantle d)crust > outer core > inner core > mantle e)crust > mantle > outer core > inner core

44 The process of cementation, compaction, and hardening of sediments into sedimentary rock is called _____. a)carbonation b)geomagnetic reversal c)lithification d)isostasy e)metamorphism

45 The process of cementation, compaction, and hardening of sediments into sedimentary rock is called _____. a)carbonation b)geomagnetic reversal c)lithification d)isostasy e)metamorphism

46 The most common extrusive igneous rock is _____. a)sandstone b)basalt c)granite d)gneiss e)limestone

47 The most common extrusive igneous rock is _____. a)sandstone b)basalt c)granite d)gneiss e)limestone

48 Pangaea is the name given to a)the part of California west of the San Andreas fault that is moving into the Pacific Ocean. b)the period of geologic history that predates modern life forms. c)a rift valley in east Africa where a new ocean is forming. d)the name of a previous supercontinent thought to have broken into several plates. e)the larger feature that makes up the Hawaiian Islands via hotspot volcanism.

49 Pangaea is the name given to a)the part of California west of the San Andreas fault that is moving into the Pacific Ocean. b)the period of geologic history that predates modern life forms. c)a rift valley in east Africa where a new ocean is forming. d)the name of a previous supercontinent thought to have broken into several plates. e)the larger feature that makes up the Hawaiian Islands via hotspot volcanism.

50 The interconnected mountain chain on the ocean floor is built by upwelling flows of magma in a process called _____. a)trench widening b)metamorphism c)sea-floor spreading d)isostasy e)subduction

51 The interconnected mountain chain on the ocean floor is built by upwelling flows of magma in a process called _____. a)trench widening b)metamorphism c)sea-floor spreading d)isostasy e)subduction

52 A batholith is most directly associated with a)intrusive igneous rocks. b)chemical sedimentary rocks. c)relative-age dating. d)extrusive igneous rocks. e)metamorphic rocks.

53 A batholith is most directly associated with a)intrusive igneous rocks. b)chemical sedimentary rocks. c)relative-age dating. d)extrusive igneous rocks. e)metamorphic rocks.

54 The collision of India and Asia to form the Himalayas is an example of a _____ plate boundary. a)drifting b)convergent c)divergent d)transform e)upwelling

55 The collision of India and Asia to form the Himalayas is an example of a _____ plate boundary. a)drifting b)convergent c)divergent d)transform e)upwelling

56 Subduction is most likely to be located _____. a)at the collision of two pieces of continental crust b)underneath mid-ocean ridges c)within the outer core d)at the collision of oceanic and continental crust e)in the middle of ocean basins

57 Subduction is most likely to be located _____. a)at the collision of two pieces of continental crust b)underneath mid-ocean ridges c)within the outer core d)at the collision of oceanic and continental crust e)in the middle of ocean basins

58 A map of global volcanoes and earthquakes reveals that they are most commonly found a)along plate margins. b)in the center of plates. c)at hot spots. d)along mid-ocean ridges. e)in Australia.

59 A map of global volcanoes and earthquakes reveals that they are most commonly found a)along plate margins. b)in the center of plates. c)at hot spots. d)along mid-ocean ridges. e)in Australia.

60 The location of the Mohorovičić discontinuity is best described as residing between a)continental crust and oceanic crust. b)the outer core and inner core. c)Gondwana and Laurasia. d)the Nazca plate and the South American plate. e)the crust and the mantle.

61 The location of the Mohorovičić discontinuity is best described as residing between a)continental crust and oceanic crust. b)the outer core and inner core. c)Gondwana and Laurasia. d)the Nazca plate and the South American plate. e)the crust and the mantle.


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