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CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth’s surface. Know the features.

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Presentation on theme: "CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth’s surface. Know the features."— Presentation transcript:

1 CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth’s surface. Know the features of the ocean floor (magnetic patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth’s surface. Know the principal structures that form at the three different kinds of plate boundaries. Know how to explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonic processes. Know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes. Know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.

2 Which of the following provides evidence for plate tectonics?
Sea floor topography. Ocean currents. Coriolis effect. Atmospheric temperatures.

3 The youngest rocks on the ocean floor are typically located near what feature?
A midocean ridge. A continental shelf. An abyssal plain. A subduction trench.

4 A rift valley is evidence of which kind of plate boundary?
convergent divergent transform uniform

5 The convergence (convergent) of two continental plates would produce
Island arcs. Rift valleys. Folded mountains. trenches.

6 Which of the following is most responsible for the formation of new crust at the edge of a tectonic plate? Mountain building at a continent-continent convergent boundary. Magma rising up from the mantle at a divergent boundary. Two tectonic plates sliding past one another at a transform boundary. Subduction of one oceanic plate uner another at a convergent boundary.

7 It is generally true that igneous rocks
Contain primarily evaporites. Can be scratched with a penny. Normally contain fossils. Are composed of silicate materials.

8 Cooling rates of igneous rocks can be estimated by comparing rocks’
Crystal sizes. composition. density. Chemical reactivity.

9 Which of the following would most likely produce a fragmental (broken up) sedimentary rock?
Magma fractured on the ocean floor. Calcite crystallized from seawater. Gravel deposited in a silt bed. Limestone dissolved in cave formation.

10 Energy is transferred between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere by these three mechanisms.
A: Conduction, convection, and radiation

11 Define reversed polarity.
A magnetic field that points south.

12 Continents move because of ____ _____. As they move their _____changes.
Plate tectonics Latitude

13 A change in latitude causes a change in the continent’s ______.

14 One proof of plate tectonics is that different continents have the same ______. The tropical plant fossils are found in Antarctica because it was once near the _____. Fossils Equator

15 The ice age at the end of the Cretaceous period was caused by a large _____. The dust ____the sun which caused extremely ____temperatures and a mass ____of many living organisms. Meteorite Blocked Cold Extinction

16 Meteorite Impact Animation

17 Volcanic eruptions add ___________ ___________ and ___________ to the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide Water vapor

18 Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor

19 Three carbon gasses in the atmosphere are: ______________, _________________ & ___________________.
Carbon dioxide Methane Chloroflurocarbons

20 Earth has two energy sources: ______________ and ___________________.
External Internal

21 Earth’s internal energy source is from ___________ _________ and _________ _________.
Radioactive decay Gravitational energy

22 Earth’s external energy source is ____________ ________________.
Solar Radiation

23 Earth’s internal energy source causes
Convection currents

24 Convection Currents in the Mantle

25 Plate tectonic is the theory that explains how large pieces of the ______________ moves.

26 Plates move about _____________ per year.
3-5 Centimeters a year.

27 Sea floor spreading can be found at the _____ _____in the Atlantic Ocean. This is also a ___boundary. Mid Ocean Ridge Divergent

28 Seafloor Spreading

29 Proof of sea-floor spreading inlcudes ____ patterns, a ______age of the sea floor, the ____features of the ocean floor. Magnetic Young topographical

30 Magnetic patterns on the sea-floor show a pattern of ____________ _______________.
Polarity Reversion

31 Magnetic Reversals Through Time

32 Young sea-floor rocks are ________the mid-ocean ridge and older rocks are _________.
Near Far

33 Deep ocean trenches are found at ________________ boundaries where one plate is diving under another plate. This is also a ______ Convergent Subduction zone

34 Subduction at Convergent Boundary

35 Mountains form at convergent boundaries between ___________ and ___________ plates.

36 Continent with Continent Conversion

37 Volcanoes form at convergent boundaries when _______ crust is subducting beneath __________ or __________ crust. Ocean Continental

38 Subduction at Convergent Boundary

39 Transform boundaries have ___________ earthquakes
Transform boundaries have ___________ earthquakes. Subduction zones earthquakes are ____________. Shallow Deep

40 Transform boundary = Shallow Focus Earthquake

41 The largest fault system in North America is the _____________
The largest fault system in North America is the _____________. This is a ____________ boundary. San Andreas Transform

42 San Andreas Fault = Transform Boundary

43 Earthquakes are a major hazard in CA because it sits on ______ ___________ __________.
Several tectonic plates or three tectonic plates

44 The Pacific Plate and the North American plate in southern CA create a _____________ boundary. Earthquakes along the ______________ lines. These earthquakes are _________. Transform Fault Shallow

45 Three major hazards in Southern CA can be: ____, ____, and ____.
Landslides Wildfires Earthquakes

46 The Juan de Fuca plate is ______________ under the North American Plate in northern ______. All total, CA sits on ___________ tectonic plates. Subducting California Three

47 California sits on North American, Pacific & Juan de Fuca Plates

48 Two major hazards in Northern CA can be: ____________ & ______________.
Volcanoes Earthquakes

49 The Cascade mountain range at the Juan de Fuca plate is a _____________ mountain range.

50 ______________ energy at plate boundaries is an alternative energy source for southern CA. Here __________ igneous rocks are _________ into the crust near the surface. Geothermal Molten Intruding

51 The two industrial minerals CA mines the most are ____________ and ____________.
Sand Gravel

52 ________________ is used to make cement
________________ is used to make cement. This rock is __________ because it is formed from the shells of dead organisms. Limestone Organic

53 The three major rock types are ____________, ______________, and _____________.
Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous

54 Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic

55 _____________rock forms after erosion has __________ _________Earth’s surface and the sediments are then compacted and ______________ together by pressure. Sedimentary Broken down Cemented

56 Igneous rocks are formed by cooled _____________
Igneous rocks are formed by cooled _____________. When it cools slowly _______ crystals form and when it cools quickly ________________ crystals form. Lava Large Small

57 Igneous rock found beneath Earth’s surface is ____________________ and igneous rock found on top of Earth’s surface is _______________________. Intrusive Extrusive

58 Basalt is an _________rock found at divergent boundaries where there is ________________.
Igneous Seafloor spreading

59 Metamorphic rock is formed when ____________ and _______________change rocks.
Heat Pressure

60 The focus of an earthquake is located _______ the Earth’s crust and the epicenter is located directly _______________ the focus. Inside Above

61 The two seismic body waves are __________ and ______________.
Primary Secondary

62 The two seismic body waves are __________and______________
Primary Secondary

63 _________________ detect seismic waves and _______________ record seismic waves.
Seismometers Seismographs

64 Seismograms show that _______ waves arrive first and ____________ waves arrive second.
P (primary) S (secondary)

65 Primary waves move ____________ and secondary waves move ________________. The ____________________ is causes the most damage. Parallel Side to side S wave

66 Seismologist use ________________ seismograms to determine the location of the epicenter by _______________. Three Triangulation

67 The Mercalli scale measures the _______________ of the earthquake and the Richter scale measures the _____________ of an earthquake. Intensity Magnitude

68 Volcanoes in the middle of the plate form from _________ _______
Volcanoes in the middle of the plate form from _________ _______. They are _________________ volcanoes and have _______________ viscosity Hot spots Shield Low

69 Cinder volcanoes have ____________ viscosity because the magma has a _________ silica content and __________________ temperatures. High Cooler

70 Cinder volcanoes have ______________ eruptions because: 1) the viscosity of the magma is ______________, 2) it has trapped and dissolved ____________, 3) and it has built up ______________. Explosive High Gases Pressure

71 Ash shot into the air can __________ solar radiation and ______________ the Earth’s surface temperature. Block Decrease

72 The primary factors that determine the eruption of a volcano are 1) magma ____________, 2) magma______________________, 3) gas _____________. Composition Temperature Pressure

73 The main differences between shield, cinder, and composite volcanoes are the types of _______________, the __________ of the sides, and the ______________. Lava Steepness Height

74 The End

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