Presentation on theme: "CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earths surface. a.Know the features."— Presentation transcript:
CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earths surface. a.Know the features of the ocean floor (magnetic patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earths surface. b.Know the principal structures that form at the three different kinds of plate boundaries. c.Know how to explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonic processes. d.Know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes. e.Know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.
Which of the following provides evidence for plate tectonics? A.Sea floor topography. B.Ocean currents. C.Coriolis effect. D.Atmospheric temperatures.
The youngest rocks on the ocean floor are typically located near what feature? A.A midocean ridge. B.A continental shelf. C.An abyssal plain. D.A subduction trench.
A rift valley is evidence of which kind of plate boundary? A.convergent B.divergent C.transform D.uniform
The convergence (convergent) of two continental plates would produce A.Island arcs. B.Rift valleys. C.Folded mountains. D.trenches.
Which of the following is most responsible for the formation of new crust at the edge of a tectonic plate? A.Mountain building at a continent-continent convergent boundary. B.Magma rising up from the mantle at a divergent boundary. C.Two tectonic plates sliding past one another at a transform boundary. D.Subduction of one oceanic plate uner another at a convergent boundary.
It is generally true that igneous rocks A.Contain primarily evaporites. B.Can be scratched with a penny. C.Normally contain fossils. D.Are composed of silicate materials.
Cooling rates of igneous rocks can be estimated by comparing rocks A.Crystal sizes. B.composition. C.density. D.Chemical reactivity.
Which of the following would most likely produce a fragmental (broken up) sedimentary rock? A.Magma fractured on the ocean floor. B.Calcite crystallized from seawater. C.Gravel deposited in a silt bed. D.Limestone dissolved in cave formation.
Energy is transferred between Earths surface and the atmosphere by these three mechanisms. A: Conduction, convection, and radiation
Define reversed polarity. A magnetic field that points south.
Continents move because of ____ _____. As they move their _____changes. Plate tectonics Latitude
A change in latitude causes a change in the continents ______. Climate.
One proof of plate tectonics is that different continents have the same ______. The tropical plant fossils are found in Antarctica because it was once near the _____. Fossils Equator
The ice age at the end of the Cretaceous period was caused by a large _____. The dust ____the sun which caused extremely ____temperatures and a mass ____of many living organisms. Meteorite Blocked Cold Extinction
Meteorite Impact Animation
Volcanic eruptions add ___________ ___________ and ___________ to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide Water vapor
Carbon Dioxide & Water Vapor
Three carbon gasses in the atmosphere are: ______________, _________________ & ___________________. Carbon dioxide Methane Chloroflurocarbons
Earth has two energy sources: ______________ and ___________________. External Internal
Earths internal energy source is from ___________ _________ and _________ _________. Radioactive decay Gravitational energy
Earths external energy source is ____________ ________________. Solar Radiation
Earths internal energy source causes Convection currents
Convection Currents in the Mantle
Plate tectonic is the theory that explains how large pieces of the ______________ moves. Lithosphere
Plates move about _____________ per year. 3-5 Centimeters a year.
Sea floor spreading can be found at the _____ _____in the Atlantic Ocean. This is also a ___boundary. Mid Ocean Ridge Divergent
Proof of sea-floor spreading inlcudes ____ patterns, a ______age of the sea floor, the ____features of the ocean floor. Magnetic Young topographical
Magnetic patterns on the sea-floor show a pattern of ____________ _______________. Polarity Reversion
Magnetic Reversals Through Time
Young sea-floor rocks are ________the mid- ocean ridge and older rocks are _________. Near Far
Deep ocean trenches are found at ________________ boundaries where one plate is diving under another plate. This is also a ______ Convergent Subduction zone
Subduction at Convergent Boundary
Mountains form at convergent boundaries between ___________ and ___________ plates. Continental
Continent with Continent Conversion
Volcanoes form at convergent boundaries when _______ crust is subducting beneath __________ or __________ crust. Ocean Continental Ocean
Subduction at Convergent Boundary
Transform boundaries have ___________ earthquakes. Subduction zones earthquakes are ____________. A.Shallow B.Deep
Transform boundary = Shallow Focus Earthquake
The largest fault system in North America is the _____________. This is a ____________ boundary. San Andreas Transform
San Andreas Fault = Transform Boundary
Earthquakes are a major hazard in CA because it sits on ______ ___________ __________. Several tectonic plates or three tectonic plates
The Pacific Plate and the North American plate in southern CA create a _____________ boundary. Earthquakes along the ______________ lines. These earthquakes are _________. A.Transform B.Fault C.Shallow
Three major hazards in Southern CA can be: ____, ____, and ____. A.Landslides B.Wildfires C.Earthquakes
The Juan de Fuca plate is ______________ under the North American Plate in northern ______. All total, CA sits on ___________ tectonic plates. Subducting California Three
California sits on North American, Pacific & Juan de Fuca Plates
Two major hazards in Northern CA can be: ____________ & ______________. Volcanoes Earthquakes
The Cascade mountain range at the Juan de Fuca plate is a _____________ mountain range. Volcanic
______________ energy at plate boundaries is an alternative energy source for southern CA. Here __________ igneous rocks are _________ into the crust near the surface. Geothermal Molten Intruding
The two industrial minerals CA mines the most are ____________ and ____________. Sand Gravel
________________ is used to make cement. This rock is __________ because it is formed from the shells of dead organisms. Limestone Organic
The three major rock types are ____________, ______________, and _____________. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous
Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic
_____________rock forms after erosion has __________ _________Earths surface and the sediments are then compacted and ______________ together by pressure. Sedimentary Broken down Cemented
Igneous rocks are formed by cooled _____________. When it cools slowly _______ crystals form and when it cools quickly ________________ crystals form. Lava Large Small
Igneous rock found beneath Earths surface is ____________________ and igneous rock found on top of Earths surface is _______________________. Intrusive Extrusive
Basalt is an _________rock found at divergent boundaries where there is ________________. Igneous Seafloor spreading
Metamorphic rock is formed when ____________ and _______________change rocks. Heat Pressure
The focus of an earthquake is located _______ the Earths crust and the epicenter is located directly _______________ the focus. Inside Above
The two seismic body waves are __________ and ______________. Primary Secondary
The two seismic body waves are __________and______________ Primary Secondary
_________________ detect seismic waves and _______________ record seismic waves. Seismometers Seismographs
Seismograms show that _______ waves arrive first and ____________ waves arrive second. P (primary) S (secondary)
Primary waves move ____________ and secondary waves move ________________. The ____________________ is causes the most damage. Parallel Side to side S wave
Seismologist use ________________ seismograms to determine the location of the epicenter by _______________. Three Triangulation
The Mercalli scale measures the _______________ of the earthquake and the Richter scale measures the _____________ of an earthquake. Intensity Magnitude
Volcanoes in the middle of the plate form from _________ _______. They are _________________ volcanoes and have _______________ viscosity Hot spots Shield Low
Cinder volcanoes have ____________ viscosity because the magma has a _________ silica content and __________________ temperatures. High Cooler
Cinder volcanoes have ______________ eruptions because: 1) the viscosity of the magma is ______________, 2) it has trapped and dissolved ____________, 3) and it has built up ______________. Explosive High Gases Pressure
Ash shot into the air can __________ solar radiation and ______________ the Earths surface temperature. Block Decrease
The primary factors that determine the eruption of a volcano are 1) magma ____________, 2) magma______________________, 3) gas _____________. Composition Temperature Pressure
The main differences between shield, cinder, and composite volcanoes are the types of _______________, the __________ of the sides, and the ______________. Lava Steepness Height