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Unit 2.2 Organizational Structure Lesson 1: The Formal Organization Pages 203-208.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2.2 Organizational Structure Lesson 1: The Formal Organization Pages 203-208."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2.2 Organizational Structure Lesson 1: The Formal Organization Pages

2 President Roosevelt once said, “The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it.” Explain what he meant by this? … Theodore Roosevelt ( ), 26 th president of the USA

3 1. What are the job roles of each section in an organization? 2. What is an organizational chart? 3. How are they organized? …

4 We will be looking at the many ways businesses organize their human resources. We have learned in Unit 1.1 that one of the four major business functions was what? HUMAN RESOURCES! We also learned in Unit 1.2 about sole proprietorships and the various jobs they have to do, because why? They are the ONLY one running the business. …

5 So, what if the business expands and becomes larger? What will the business need then? It will need a formal and organized structure to make sure the business operates in an efficient and functional manner. This can be determined by two things: 1. Accountability….what do I mean by this? Shows who is responsible for what job and their performance. 2. Responsibility…what do I mean by this? Shows who is in charge of whom.

6 In pairs: Brainstorm and create a “typical” structure for OUR IB High School. Hints: Think about who is at the top and work your way down. You have 5 mins....

7 As stated before, as a business becomes larger and more complex it has to be more structured. If not, there would be total chaos and all the tasks and roles will not be fulfilled. An organizational structure is helpful in many ways: Can determine specialist areas. Determines who is the supervisor; form of accountability. Determines who has authority and their responsibilities. Explains how all areas in the business are linked. Can verify your own position in the company. Identifies the channels of communication in an organization. …

8 CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisor and Team leaders Other employees Chief Executive Officer: Responsible for running the business. Accountable to the shareholders. Head of the company. Leads the team of directors. Represents the BOD. Works on the company’s objectives and policies with the BOD. Communicates with the directors about any problems. Plans and implements corporate strategy. …

9 CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisor and Team leaders Other employees Board of Directors (executives): responsible for the overall running of the company. Two main types of directors: 1. Executive (full time) 2. Non-executive (part time) Their duties: Target setting Long term planning Making organizational policies and codes of practice Monitoring and controlling the organization Oversees staffing issues Advising and supporting the managing directors …

10 CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisor and Team leaders Other employees Management: Responsible for a team of people. Decision makers for the day to day implementation of company policy. Assist and are accountable to the BOD. …

11 CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisor and Team leaders Other employees Supervisor & Team leaders: They are the junior managers. Involved in making operational decisions. They have direct contact with the workforce. …

12 CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisor and Team leaders Other employees Other Employees: They form the majority of the company’s workforce. Will have great levels of skill and responsibilities. Work to achieve targets set by team leaders. Work as a member of a department. Make routine decisions concerning their job role. Provide support to other people in the company …

13 What is an organizational chart? It is a diagram which represents a firm’s formal organizational structure (see Fig. 2.2c, pg. 207). Charts show four important features of a business: 1. The different functional departments within a business. What are the departments in Fig. 2.2c? 2. The chain of command, various positions of authority. Explain the chain of command in Fig. 2.2c. 3. The span of control, measures the number of staff that are accountable to a manager. Discuss who is responsible to whom in Fig. 2.2c. 4. The channels of communication, the route that messages are communicated. Describe the channels of communication in Fig. 2.2c....

14 So…in Fig. 2.2c, how many levels of hierarchy are there? FIVE…right! Explain who is at each level. Traditionally organizations are structured according to their functions, but other possibilities exist. Organization by product: If broad range of product, which caters to various types of customers…remember the SBU’s in Unit 1.7. Organization by process: Based on the different processes carried out in the business. Think of a publishing firm; editorial, print, and sales and marketing departments. Organization by geography: Remember the MNC’s in Unit 1.9? They can be organized based on region or area. This will allow the company to be more responsive to local cultural differences and consumer needs. Turn to page 208 and look at Fig. 2.2d, multiforms of organizational structure. …

15 Unit 2.2 Organizational Structure Lesson 2: Delegation and Span of Control Pages

16 Explain what is meant by delegation and is this beneficial and/or effective to the company? What is span of control and when does it occur? Are there any advantages to having this span of control? …

17 What is it and why is it important? It is when managers pass on to others some of their roles and responsibilities. It is the passing on of control and authority. It is important because the manager is entrusting and empowering their staff to complete a task or project. Their staff will be held accountable for their actions. The responsibility will remain with the manager. So try to understand the difference between the two. Excellent test question: Describe with examples, the differences between accountability and responsibility within a company’s organization. …

18 How many here want to be managers? What do you think would be one very important skill for managers to master? That’s right, the art of delegation. Think about it…if you are a manager and you try to do every little thing that pops up on a daily basis, will you be a successful manager? Will to be a productive manager? Effective delegation has tremendous benefits: As a manager you save time and can focus more on strategic issues. It can also motivate and develop staff trust and talents. …

19 Now the opposite is true for poor delegation. If you are always stepping in the way and taking credit for others work, it will lead to confusion and distrust. This will hurt your productivity and can de-motivate staff. So, how can ensure that you are properly delegating? REMEMBER Unit 1.3….SMART? For delegation to be effective it must be: Specific Measurable Agreed Realistic Time-based Ethical Recorded

20 Key word here is control. The number of people who are controlled by a manager. They are directly accountable to a manager. The manager is accountable to the BOD and the CEO. So, the higher up in the organization’s hierarchy the wider the span of control tends to be. Some examples of span of control. …

21 CEO Worker Assistant This occurs when a manager has many people under their control. What is the advantage of this? There are fewer layers in the hierarchy of the organization. Cost will be kept under control. The flatter the organizational structure the better communication will be between the different levels of hierarchy. …

22 A Narrow Span of Control occurs when there are fewer subordinates who are accountable to a manager. What is the advantage of this? Easier to communicate with and control the team. Smaller teams may be more productive. However, with more levels of management in the structure, this system can be costly. CEO DirectorManagerWorker Manager DirectorManagerWorker Manager

23 Wide Span of Control (flatter structure)Narrow Span of Control (taller structure) Delegation is an important part of managingFaster team communication Improved communicationSmall teams are easier to control and manage Cheaper to operateGreater specialization and division of labour Smaller psychological gaps between those at the top and those at the bottom Greater opportunity to earn a promotion

24 Wide Span of Control (flatter structure) Delegation is an important part of managing. Improved communication. Cheaper to operate. Smaller psychological gaps between those at the top and those at the bottom. Narrow Span of Control (taller structure) Faster team communication. Small teams are easier to control and manage. Greater specialization and division of labour. Greater opportunity to earn a promotion. …

25 Many of you are probably asking by now, what is the ideal span of control? The questions comes from a management theorist, Henri Fayol ( ). But it was V.A. Graicunas ( ) from Lithuania who addressed this question of the optimal span of control. He suggests that the maximum number of subordinates should be four or five. Why? Could cause delay and confusion if managing too many people. In any case, more and more businesses are opting for a wider span of control. But what will determine how much control should be granted to a manager?

26 The degree of control granted to a manager will depend upon… Experience, competence, and traits of the manager Nature of management style Skills and dynamics of subordinates The nature of work The type of production system used

27 Unit 2.2 Organizational Structure Lesson 3: Levels of Hierarchy & Chain of Command Pages ,

28 What are the different levels in a hierarchy? Explain delayering? Explain downsizing? How are they different? Explain the differences between a flat and tall organization. Explain the chain of command. What are the benefits of an organizational chart? The best structure for an organization depends on what factors?

29 Refers to the structure of an organization. It is based on a ranking system. Will be ranked according to who is at the top, middle, and bottom. Who is at the top? Who is at the bottom? These levels of an organization are best viewed in a chart. Each level in the hierarchy refers to the different rank and its associated degree of authority and responsibility. Think of military ranking system, with the general at the top and the private at the bottom. …

30 Level 5: employees Level 4: Line Managers Level 3: Directors / Managers Level 2: BOD / Directors Level 1: CEO CEO Two main advantages of using hierarchical systems: 1. Show clear lines of communications. 2. Establish departments or teams. They also have their limitations: Departmentalization can lead to workers being isolated. These structures tend to be inflexible. …

31 Narrow span of control leads to tall hierarchical structures. Wide span of control leads to flatter hierarchical structures.

32 What is delayering and why are many organizations opting to do it? It is a process of removing one or more levels in the hierarchy. By doing this the company flattens out their organizational structure. Thus reducing the number of layers of management and widen the span of control. Three main reasons for delayering: 1. reduce costs 2. increase speed of communication Encourage delegation Delayering is often associated with downsizing. Do you remember what is meant by downsizing? …

33 There are several drawbacks to this: 1. They create anxiety and a sense of insecurity among workers. 2. Can overstretch employees and increase their workload. 3. Flexible working practices will require workers to upgrade their skills regularly. 4. Decision-making may take longer since mangers are dealing with larger teams. …

34 Refers to the formal line of authority through which orders are passed down in an organization. A flat hierarchical structure will have a short chain of command. …

35 HR is essential to running a business Effectively organizing people is challenging for any manager Poor organizational structure can lead to: Reduced staff motivation Duplication of effort Communication problems Difficulties in coordination Ineffective decision making

36 Organizational charts are important because they allow employees to see: Overall structure of human resources in a business Who their line manger is (who they are accountable to) Those who must report to their line manager Formal chain of command

37 It is likely that larger organizations require longer chains of command and taller hierarchical structures Importance of delayering: Cuts costs Removes unnecessary management roles Shorter chain of command Delegation of decision making is pushed down Productivity improves

38 There is not one model to fit every business The best structure for an organization depends on: Size of the business Employee competencies Management attitudes History and culture of the business


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