Presentation on theme: "Enhance Classified Education and Cooperative Exchange to Promote the Cultivation of Creative Talents ---Thoughts about the Future Orientation of Graduate."— Presentation transcript:
Enhance Classified Education and Cooperative Exchange to Promote the Cultivation of Creative Talents ---Thoughts about the Future Orientation of Graduate Education Prof. Zihe Rao President, MCAS Nankai University Aug.26th, 2010
Outline 1.The orientation of graduate education must correspond with the trends and needs of social and economic development 2.The acceleration of classified positioning is the basis and prerequisite of making clear the orientation of graduate education 3.Service-centeredness and innovation-orientation are the overall trends of future graduate education 4.The reinforcement of international exchange and cooperation is the important way to widen the orientation of graduate education 5. The consolidation of postdoctoral education is the important link to widen the graduate education of creative talents
1. The orientation of graduate education must correspond with the trends and needs of social and economic development The ever-enlarging scale of graduate education in the past 30 years indicates the vigorous needs for high-level talents and it also manifests, to a certain extent, that the orientation and standard of graduate education in China during this period is basically in accordance with the needs of social and economic development.
quantity Enterprises: qualified high-level talents difficult to be found Crossroad Universities: graduates more and more difficult to be employed quality
“The work in the structural reform units of graduate education should be actively conducted, the inherent initiative of both graduate students and their supervisors should be positively motivated, and the students’ creative spirit and practical ability should be emphatically cultivated.” News spokesman of Ministry of Education 2006.9.25 “Graduate education in our country has achieved a lot due to reform and development in the past 20-odd years. However, according to the principle of cultivating creative talents, at present the quality and level of graduate education is far from satisfactory and thus a structural reform in graduate education is called for.” In March, 2009, The Annual Joint Working Conference of National Professional Degree Education Guiding Committee was held in Beijing, the very theme of which is to accelerate the structural adjustment of graduate education by cultivating more professional-oriented talents and reducing the number and proportion of academic- oriented talents. A notice issued by the Ministry of Education regarding the enrollment of master students in 2010 requires clearly that each enrolling unit should cut down the number of academic-oriented admissions by 5%-10% on the basis of that in 2009, and the consequent vacancies are used for professional-oriented admissions instead.
The first batch of 17 universities engaged in the structural reform of graduate education approved by Ministry of Education (2007) Peking UniversityHarbin Institute of Technology Tsinghua UniversityZhenjiang University Fudan University Xi ’ an Jiaotong University Shanghai Jiaotong UniversityChina Agricultural University Tongji UniversityDalian University of Technology University of Science and Technology of China Nanjing University Wuhan UniversitySichuan University Southeast UniversitySouth China University of Technology Sun Yat-sen University Nankai University （ September, 2008 ）
main contents enhancing research- orientation, reforming graduate admission and education plan establishing special fund for graduates construction and management of supervisors implementing supervisor’s post system perfecting supervisor’s responsibility system arousing students’ creative initiative Reforming scholarship and subsidy system adjusting the structure of graduate education academic- oriented graduates professional -oriented graduates According to the guidance of Notice on Further Implementation of Work Regarding the Structural Reform of Graduate Education in Those Units Concerned issued by the office of Ministry of Education (Teaching and Researching Office, , N0. 1), the contents of the structural reform of graduate education mainly include:
In March, 2008, Nankai University carried out the classified graduate education in response to the call from Ministry of Education. Being the first to propose this concept of education, Nankai University also issued forth a series of documents such as Reform Measures in the Scheme of Classified Education of Graduates, Nankai Univeristy, and Provisional Plan for Graduate Scholarship and Subsidies, Nankai University etc.
Classified education enabled our graduates to be more qualified to meet social and market needs and effectively enhanced the quality of our graduates as well as the employment rate. Except some majors, the employment rate in our university maintained the level of 97% in recent years.
2. The acceleration of classified positioning is the basis of making clear the orientation of graduate education Classified graduate education has been attracting extensive attention. Western developed countries like America since the very beginning have divided graduate students into academic-oriented type and professional-oriented type, with the former mainly cultivated by comprehensive schools of arts and sciences and the latter by professional schools. graduates Academic- oriented Cultivated by Schools of arts and sciences Professional- oriented Cultivated by professional schools
classified graduate education Classification of graduates Academic- oriented (20-25 ％ ) For universities and research institutes Professional- oriented (75-80%) For industries and markets Redistribution of graduates Opportunity to Choose the type of education Opportunity to pursue further study trans- disciplinarily Restricted to similar or neighboring disciplines Basic operational procedures of classified graduate education in Nankai University
3. Service-centeredness and innovation-orientation are the overall trends of future graduate education J. S. Brubacher, one of the famous higher education experts in America, holds that there are three kinds of philosophical thinking guiding the development of higher education, namely, epistemological thinking with the aim of exploring truth freely, political thinking with the aim of serving the country, and pragmatism philosophy characterized by the rational combination of both epistemological thinking and political thinking. The future graduate education should on the one hand serve the disciplinary development and knowledge production and on the other serve the needs of the country, the society, the market as well as the individual graduate. Therefore, it embodies none other than the service-centered pragmatism. In order to serve better, the emphasis should be shifted from the increase of number to the upgrading of quality, which is the overall transcendence and innovation of the current graduate education system with its entire links.
Graduate education Academic- oriented graduates （ epistemological philosophy ） In service of disciplinary development and knowledge production Professional- oriented graduates （ political philosophy ） In service of all kinds of practical purposes Pragmatism philosophy In view of the innovative practice of classified education in our university as well as the trends of social development, we hold that the basic orientation and general framework of future graduate education should be as follows: Service- centeredness Overall innovation Overall innovation
In order guarantee the high quality of graduate education, Nankai University has put forward successively 10 reform measures since 2005: adhering to the disciplinary structure and educational principle of quantity in compliance with quality and structure in service of needs; stipulating that each supervisor can admit no more than two doctoral students each year; refusing to admit those students with high scores and low abilities; sticking to the unification of the generality of professional cultivation scheme and the specificity of individual cultivation plan; improving educational quality by centering on the cultivation of creativity; making clear that supervisor is just a kind of working post instead of rank symbol; breaking the situation of zero-weeding-out of graduates by strictly implementing the academic standard and weeding-out system; establishing the fund for producing excellent doctoral dissertations and the new academic star award for doctoral students; exploring a new model of doctoral student cultivation through the integration of both master’s level and doctoral level; implementing classified graduate education.
Great Expectation’s High-end Interview Classified Education: Nankai’s Step is the Earliest ---Interview with Professor Tong Jiadong, Vise President of Nankai University and dean of Its Graduate School Reforms in our university has attracted extensive attention from domestic media for coverage transferred from Bulletin of Ministry of Education, 2005 (207) by China Alumni Association: Nankai University Carries Out Nine Measures to Upgrade the Quality of Graduate Education
4. The reinforcement of international exchange and cooperation is the important way to widen the orientation of graduate education Great differences exist between Chinese and western graduate education which are well complement to each other
Our country has a good tradition to learn from the advanced experience of western countries, and since the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, there are increasingly more and more people studying abroad ， which contributes a lot to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese and western education. Year Those studying abroad Those returned 1978860248 19802124162 198548881424 199029501593 1995203815750 2000389899121 20018397312243 200212517917945 200311730720152 200411468224726 200511851534987 200613400042000 200714400044000 200817980069300
The number of overseas students from abroad in China also takes on a growing trend year by year ： year Overseas students admitted Oversea students at school Overseas students graduated overseas students degree-awarded 20045060364107364543030 20056090478323443373791 20066261282107445664782 20076650992491463226071 200871294106870527457406
Actively widening the scope of international exchange and increase the number of programs Actively widening the scope of international exchange and increase the number of programs Introducing world-renowned scholars in our university through the national wisdom-attracting program Introducing world-renowned scholars in our university through the national wisdom-attracting program Establishing international academic exchange fund for doctoral students in Nankai University Establishing international academic exchange fund for doctoral students in Nankai University Creating favorable conditions to attract overseas students from abroad to study in Nankai University. Creating favorable conditions to attract overseas students from abroad to study in Nankai University. Taking full advantage of the state-funded overseas student program and widen the scope of state-funded joint training Taking full advantage of the state-funded overseas student program and widen the scope of state-funded joint training Major Measures to promote International Exchange, Nankai University Major Measures to promote International Exchange, Nankai University
Up to now, we have already established exchange and cooperation with more than 100 universities or international academic institutions in 25 countries or regions. At present, there are more than 2300 overseas students from various countries in our university, and the programs involved have provided an important platform for the graduates to participate in international exchange and cooperation.
5. The consolidation of postdoctoral education is the important link to widen the graduate education of creative talents The main force of research: Home ： centered on doctoral students Abroad ： centered on postdoctoral students The type of postdoctoral students: Home ： out-of-job or in-job postdoctoral students Abroad: employee-like postdoctoral associates or non-employee-like postdoctoral fellows
Twenty-five years’ development of postdoctoral education system in China (1985-2010) Problems: Misunderstanding of postdoctoral education （ mixed with schooling and degree) Formalization of postdoctoral education （ in principle in-job admittance is not allowed) Utilitarianism of postdoctoral education (mixed with various titles) Achievements: 413 postdoctoral mobile stations, 2148 postdoctoral mobile research stations and 1642 postdoctoral research working stations established up to now Annual admittance more than 8000, with 14000 still working in stations and 40000 already graduated Seven of those postdoctoral members already selected as academician in China Academician Ouyang Zhongcan from Chinese Academy of Sciences Academician Wen Lan from Peking University
Conclusion The orientation of future graduate education exhibits a kind of uncertainty because it is influenced by quite a few complicated factors in a specific period, such as political, economic, cultural and demographic etc, all of which may exert some influence on the orientation of graduate education. Since 2005, we have explored issues such as how to upgrade the quality of graduate education, how to better link up social needs and graduate education and so on. The following are specific measures taken during these years.
(1) Through the strict application of supervisor’s post system, we have made clear the supervisor’s obligation and responsibility; (2) we have established the new academic star award for doctoral students and the fund for producing excellent doctoral dissertations to encourage them to conduct creative research, and their creative ability is consequently enhanced; (3) through the improvement of scholarship and subsidy standard, the graduates’ learning and research initiative has been effectively aroused; (4) through the implementation of graduate weeding-out system, the traditional zero-weeding-out practice has been smashed and as a consequence, the quality of graduate education is greatly upgraded; (5) through allowing graduate students to pursue further study trans-disciplinarily, their learning potentials have been better exploited; (6) through classified graduate education, the dual needs of social development and disciplinary development have been optimally satisfied. It can be safely concluded that Nankai University’s attempt at exploring the structure and orientation of graduate education is quite successful. Nonetheless, we are still facing a lot of challenges and difficulties which require further effort and exploration to tackle them.
Well-known both home and abroad, Nankai University is directly under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and it has been listed as one of the “985 Project” universities as well as “211 Project” universities. Due to its renowned status, it has always been cared and emphasized by the Party and state leaders.
Nankai University was grown out of Nankai School, privately established in 1904, and it was formally established by famous patriotic educationists Yan Xiu and Zhang Boling in order to realize their ideal of saving the nation through education. In addition, it was a successful example of running a school by collecting unofficial resources. Nankai yesterday: its origin
In the history of Chinese Olympics in the past century, Nankai has always been very active. The history of Nankai University is engraved by its longing, inheriting and practicing of Olympic spirit. Zhang Bolin, the creator as well as the first president of Nankai University, once in a sports award-giving meeting, shouted that China should participate Olympics, which became Nankai’s first cry for Olympics. Picture 1 on the right hand: Zhang Boling at the 18 th North China Sports Meeting Picture 2 on the right hand ： Zhang Boling kicking off for the students’ football match Nankai yesterday: witness of Olympics in the past century
Nankai, born from a family school in Tianjin in 1898, is a world-renowned brand and Nankai educational series are all famous schools in China. Those personalities cultivated by Nankai include 2 premiers, namely, Zhou Enlai and Wen Jiabao, 1 vice premier, 4 NPC vice chairpersons, 5 CPPCC vice chairpersons, and more than 100 academicians. This nourishing glory is called “Nankai Phenomena”. Above: Young Zhou Enlai and other members in Awakening Association Deep affection I cherish for Nankai --- Zhou Enlai Below: Wen Jiabao and Nankai students Nankai spirit lasts forever --- Wen Jiabao Nankai yesterday: two premiers and tens of thousands of talents cultivated
Zhu Guangya Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences as well as Chinese Academy of Engineering, graduated from Physics Department, National Southwest Associated University, alumnus of Chongqing Nankai Middle School Wu dayou Distinguished physicist, honored as the father of Chinese physics, graduated from Nankai University, once a professor in National Southwest Associated University Zhou Guangzhao Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, renowned physicist, once vice chairman of the standing committee of NPC, president of Chinese Association of Science, alumnus of Chongqing Nankai Middle School Nankai yesterday: three distinguished deans
Zhou Enlai （ first premier of PRC, admitted in 1919 by Nankai University) Shiing-shen Chern ( father of differential geometry, admitted in 1926 by Nankai University ) Wu Dayou （ father of Chinese physics, admitted in 1925 by Nankai University) Cao Yu ( father of Chinese modern drama, admitted in 1928 by Nankai University) Guo Yonghuai （ meritorious service for atomic bomb, hydrogen bomb and artificial satellite, admitted in 1929 by Nankai University) Liu Dongsheng （ father of loess in China, admitted by in 1937 by Nankai University) Nankai yesterday: luminaries cultivated
Nankai University was first bombarded by the aggressing Japanese army in 1937 due to its resistant effort. Later it moved to the south and established the National Southwest Associated University with Peking University and Tsinghua University which was honored as the “North Star of Learning”, a miracle in Chinese education history. Zhang Boling: What was destroyed was just Nankai’s substances, but Nankai spirit will become even more vigorous because of the frustration. Chiang Kai-shek: Nankai has sacrificed for China and as long as China exists, Nankai will remain. Miao Du and other 55 left-wing writers sent a telegraph to Zhang Boling and Nankai teachers and students, denouncing the barbarity of Japanese army. Nankai yesterday: North Star of Learning
1946, Nankai returned to Tianjin to start anew as a state-run university 1952, Nankai became a comprehensive university with both arts and sciences 1994, Nankai was selected as one of “211 Project” universities 2000, Nankai was selected as one of “985 Project” Universities With tremendous effort exerted by Nankai people through several generations in the past 90 years, Nankai University has established its leading statues among universities in China, and it has developed into a comprehensive research-oriented university with the widest span of disciplines. Nankai yesterday: rise in the century
2007, September, 13 th witnessed the erection of the monument of National Southwest Associated University in the original form in Nankai University. The history of National Southwest Associated University has been simultaneously recorded in the respective history of each university. Rao Zihe, president of Nankai University, Gu Binglin, president of Qsinghua University and Xu Zhihong, president of Peking University, standing together before the monument, appreciated in retrospect that tragically stirring and glorious history in order to pass down the school motto of National Southwest Associated University (fortitude and prominence) and make the historical friendship between Nankai University, Qsinghua University and Peking University even closer in this new day and age just like what it was in National Southwest Associated University with a common purpose of making its largest possible contribution to the rejuvenation of China. Nankai yesterday: fortitude and prominence
National key disciplines 26 Provincial and municipal key disciplines 48 Authorized primary doctoral disciplines 16 Doctoral Programs 118 Mater’s programs 214 Undergraduate specialties 71 Postdoctoral mobile stations 18 In the first China’s Discipline Ranking conducted by Ministry of Education between 2002 and 2004, all of Nankai’s 16 disciplines participated ranked top ten nationally. In the second round of ranking results (part of them) released by Ministry of Education, Nankai’s chemistry ranked the first and its mathematics and business administration ranked the third nationally. Nankai today: prosperity in both arts and sciences
Chemistry, physics and information science… Chemistry, biology… Mathematics… Economics and Management… History… Nankai University gives priority to the construction of five major disciplines in accordance with the principle of “ aiming for extractive powerfulness with specific focuses”.
taking full advantage of traditional disciplines of literature, history and philosophy Strengthening fundamental research in mathematics, physics and chemistry disciplines like economics, management and law actively participating in social and economic development promoting the development of disciplines like life science, medicine, pharmacy, new materials and new energy
15 academicians in Chinese Academy of Sciences or Chinese Academy of Engineering 4 academicians of the Third World Academy of Sciences 10 members of the Subject Assessment Division Degree Appraisal Committee of the State Council 33 Yangtze River Scholars 27 recipients of National Outstanding Talents Foundation 17 teachers selected by national “Millions of Talents Program” 2 National Innovation Research Groups 2 National Wisdom-attracting Bases for Disciplinary Innovation in Universities 3 Yangtze Scholar Creative Teams Small-scaled Nankai University has one of the smallest faculty among China’s prestigious universities and among its 1998 full-time teachers, there are Nankai today: distinguished teachers gathering
In 2006, Nankai University selected for employment deans of some specific colleges from both home and abroad publicly. As business flourishes with talents, school prospers with them. Nankai University, abiding by the strategy of “talents lending power to school” and following the conventional practice of selecting talents by prestigious universities in the world, has been attracting talents in open arms regardless of nationalities. Nankai Today: distinguished talents attracting
On 15 th, March, 2007, deans of 9 specific colleges as well as a batch of outstanding talents attracted both from home and abroad made their appearance together in Shiing-shen Building, and there they participated the solemn appointing ceremony. Nankai Today: distinguished talents attracting
Li Zhaoxing, a famous diplomat, and Lin Liyun, a famous translator, received their letters of appointment of Nankai University in September, 2007, respectively appointed as the dean of Zhou Enlai School of Government and of College of Foreign Languages with a four-year term. Nankai today: distinguished talents attracting
Although the scale of science and engineering of Nankai University is far smaller than that of many other universities, Nankai University received 10 national awards of science and technology between 2001 and 2005 because of its high input- output ratio. It also received 7 national second awards of natural science in three successive years (the first award is vacant), ranking first with a parallel among universities in China. Various awards and funds acquired by humanities also rank top four in China’s universities. Nankai today: excellent academic Results
There are in Nankai University 16 national or municipal key labs or engineering centers, 6 key research bases for humanities and social sciences under Ministry of education, 7 innovation bases in philosophy and social sciences included in “985 Project”, and 4 science and technology innovation platforms included in “985 Project”. For many years, papers published by Nankai University in the fields of chemistry and mathematics in international top journals have always ranked top three in China’s universities. Report made by Ministry of science and technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences demonstrated that Nankai University had published SCI papers in the field of super-molecular chemistry ranked the forth in the world and the first in Asia. Chart of SCI, EI papers published between 2000 and 2004 Nankai today: important base for research
Thank you! Nankai University Add: No.94 Wei Jin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin P.R.CHINA 300071 Web:www.nankai.edu.cn