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Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

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1 Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

2 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C. E. II
I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, C.E. II. Aztec Society in Transition III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas IV. The Other Peoples of the Americas

3 Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco
I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, C.E. Teotihuacan Collapses, 700s Toltecs Empire in central Mexico Capital at Tula, c. 968 A. The Toltec Heritage Rule extended to Yucatan, Maya lands, c. 1000 Commercial influence to American Southwest Possibly Mississippi, Ohio valleys B. The Aztec Rise to Power Toltec collapse, c. 1150 The Toltec Empire lasted until the 12th century, when it was destroyed by the Chitimecs and other attacking groups. The Toltec people were absorbed by the conquerors and in the south they became assimilated with the Maya, subordinates to the people they once conquered. After the fall of the Toltecs, central Mexico fell into a period of chaos and warfare without any single ruling group for the next 200 years, when the Aztecs gained control. Center moves to Mexico valley Lakes used for fishing, farming, transportation Aztecs in, early 14th century Begin as mercenaries, allies 1325, found Tenochtitlan Dominate by 1434 Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco The Aztects built the city, Tenochtitlan, on an island in the middle of the lake. They put up efforts to control the flooding but this led to most of the lake being drained, leaving a much smaller lake Texcoco west of the city. Lake Texcoco was part of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico was consisted of 5 interconnected major and smaller lakes.

4 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.
C. The Aztec Social Contract Transformation to hierarchical society Service of gods pre-eminent Sacrifice increased Source of political power Moctezuma II Head of state and religion Moctezuma II changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened the divide between the nobles (pipiltin) and the commoners (macehualtin) by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces. Moctezuma is seen in history as the ruler of a defeated nation. He is known as weak-willed and indecisive in most cases by historians. The sacrifices were always increasing because the Aztecs thought that the sun god needed more human blood to come up and fight against darkness and save them for that one day. So every day they sacrificed and when it was not a sunny day they continued to sacrifice humans so that they appease the sun god and the day would turn out better and it would be sunny. Moctezuma II was the 9th leader of Tenochtitlan. The first contact between Indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernan Cortes and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. During Moctezuma’s reign, the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. Through warfare, he expanded his territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

5 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.
D. Religion and the Ideology of Conquest Spiritual and natural world seamless Hundreds of deities Three groups Fertility, agriculture, water Creator gods Warfare, sacrifice e.g. Huitzilopochtli Aztec tribal god Identified with sun god Sacrifice The Aztecs were motivated to sacrifice through terror. They were scared that the sun would not come up if they did not sacrifice to the sun god. Sacrifice and Death in Mesoamerica were seen as necessary in order for the world to function and for the continued existence of the world. The Aztecs fought in wars to capture men to sacrifice to their gods. They sacrificed men from other societies or communities instead of their own. On God’s Feast Day, they sacrificed their slaves for their gods, and human sacrifices were offerings to the sun and earth so that the food will grow. Female form for all gods Yearly festivals/ceremonies Expansive calendar Sacrifice – To energize the sun god, they sacrificed humans to appease the gods. They believed that the sun fought darkness every night and rose to save mankind and that they had to feed humans to make the sun rise again for that day. They had many beliefs. Types and frequency/degree changed with Aztecs – borrowed from Toltec religious conviction vs. political control Religious questions – afterlife, good life, do gods exist Art has flowers/birds/song and blood Tenochtitlan: The Foundation of Heaven Metropois – central zone of palaces/whitewashed temples Adobe brick residential districts Larger houses for nobility Zoos, gardens for king Geographically connected to island by four causeways. The Calpulli ruled the neighborhoods. The Aztecs believed in cycles and they were very into calendars. The Aztec calendar wheels have been a source of fascination for centuries.  It wasn't just a way to keep time - it was a complete philosophy of time.  The Aztecs felt that there was religious significance in every day.  They also believed that time went in cycles - ultimately in the repeated destruction and recreation of the world.

6 Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.
Feeding the People: The Economy of the Empire Agriculture Chinampas, man-made floating islands 20,000 acres high crop yields, 4 times a year, corn/maize Mass population needed to be fed Trade Regular intervals to market Barter or cacao beans/gold for currency Pochteca – long distance trade State controlled distribution of tribute Primarily redistributed to nobility Markets Daily market at Tlatelolco Controlled by pochteca, merchant class Regulated by state

7 II. Aztec Society in Transition
Society increasingly hierarchical Widening Social Gulf Life based on calpulli (neighborhood) groups Governed by council of family heads Nobility came from heads of calpullis Military leaders based on success in taking captivesa. Ritual warfare – uniforms As society grew, widening social disparity – no longer egalitarian Scribes, artisans, healers between peasants and nobility But…competition not between social classes, but between corporate groups Calpulli Transformed from clans to groupings by residence Distribute land, labor Maintain temples, schools Basis of military organization Noble class develops from some calpulli Military virtues give them status Serf-like workers on their lands Social gaps widen Imperial family at head of pipiltin Calpulli of merchants

8 II. Aztec Society in Transition B
II. Aztec Society in Transition B. Overcoming Technological Constraints Role of women – relatively equal, but subordinate to men Peasant women – fields, child-rearing Revered as weavers Polygamy among nobility, monogamy among poor Could inherit property Limits of technology Women – six hours a day grinding corn/maize Couldn’t be freed from hours of preparing food Controlled vast number of people amazingly C. A Tribute Empire Most power in hands of Aztec ruler and chief advisor “elected” from best siblings of royal family ritual sacrifice/military dominated all elements of life City-states – as long as they made tribute – they could have autonomy Weaknesses Rise of nobles altered dynamics Society based on system of terror By 1500, Aztec society was in the down, military period – height far earlier Great Speaker Rules Tenochtitlan Prime Minister powerful Subjugated states could remain autonomous Owe tribute, labor

9 III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
Tihuanaco, Huari (c C.E.) After 1000, smaller regional states Chimor ( ) North coast of Peru Irrigated Agriculture The Inca Rise to Power 1. Inca “ruler” – military alliances and campaigns to take over 2. Subsequent rulers with names you’ll never remember expanded and consolidated land Cuzco area Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus) Huari Control regions by 1438, under Pachacuti Topac Yupanqui Son of Pachacuti Conquered Chimor Rule extended to Ecuador, Chile Huayna Capac Furthers conquests of Topac Yupanqui 1527, death Twantinsuyu (empire) From Colombia to Chile To Bolivia, Argentina Inca Expansion

10 Conquest Cult of the Ancestors – Incas believed that their dead ancestors had the power to communicate with the gods. "Split inheritance” – deceased rulers would give all of their political power and titles to their successor, but all of their material wealth and palaces went to their male descendants so that the Cult could use them to worship the ruler for eternity. Political power to successor Wealth, land, and palaces to male descendants to support the Cult Result is continual conquest because the successor had to obtain new lands on which to build their kingdom.

11 The Sun was the highest deity
Religion Incas were deeply influenced by religion. Sun god supreme The Sun was the highest deity Incas believed that they were the sun’s representative on earth Temple of the Sun at Cuzco Center of the state religion Contained the mummies of the past Incas Incas did not prohibit the worship of local gods Huacas – holy shrines where prayers were offered and sacrifices were made.


13 The Ancient Cities of Peru
The Techniques of Inca Imperial Rule Cooperation or Subordination The Inca rules from his court at Cuzco The Inca empire was divided into four provinces each with a governor at the head Incas created a bureaucracy that almost all nobles participated in. Local rulers (curacas) could maintain their powers in return for their loyalty to Inca. Unification Incas spread the Quechua language to give the people a common language. Incas would force conquered people to a new home or move their own Quechua-speaking people to a conquered area to provide the conquered people with an example of ideal individuals. The Ancient Cities of Peru

14 Inca's senior wife links state to moon
Unification Complex systems of roads, bridges, way stations (tambos), and storehouses were built. Inca armies rested at tambos as they traveled. Inca State could benefit all Redistributive economy allowed even the conquered population to receive goods not previously available to them. Building and irrigation projects that were previously impossible could now be achieved with help from new conquests. Gender Cooperation Gender roles were considered equal and interdependent. Incas emphasized military virtues, which created more inequality between men and women. Gender Cooperation was also seen in cosmology Inca's senior wife links state to moon

15 Comparing Incas and Aztecs
Inca Cultural Achievements Metallurgy – one of the most advanced metalworking civilizations in the Americas. Made weapons and tools and worked with gold, bronze, copper, and silver. Knotted strings (quipu) – used to record numerical information, similar to abacus. Used in accounting. Incas took censuses and recorded financial information. Monumental architecture – created complex irrigation technology and extensive road systems. Inca stone cutting was extremely accurate and fitted together like puzzle pieces. Comparing Incas and Aztecs Similarities Built on earlier empires Excellent organizers Intensive agriculture under state that controlled the redistribution and circulation of goods. Kinship-based institutions transformed into a hierarchy with a predominant nobility. Ethnic groups were allowed to survive as long as they acknowledged the sovereignty of the empire and paid tribute. Differences Aztecs have more developed trade and markets. Slightly different cultures

16 The Other Peoples of the Americas
Great variety elsewhere Not all in the Neolithic pattern Some use irrigation for agriculture Some formed no states A. How Many People? Very difficult to determine the exact population because of extermination from European invaders and varied accounts. B. Differing Cultural Patterns Arawaks on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola were farmers organized into a hierarchy. Some similar to Polynesian chiefdom-level societies. World Population, c. 1500

17 The Other Peoples of the Americas
By 1500… There were 200 languages in North America The Mississippian mounds had been abandoned There were two great imperial systems, the Aztecs and Incas Anasazi descendants resided in the adobe pueblos along the Rio Grande. American Indian Diversity in World Context Mesoamerica and the Andes weakened by Europeans Technologically behind Europeans; appeared to be backwards.

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