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1 Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
2 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C. E. II I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, C.E. II. Aztec Society in Transition III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas IV. The Other Peoples of the Americas
3 Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, C.E. Teotihuacan Collapses, 700sToltecsEmpire in central MexicoCapital at Tula, c. 968A. The Toltec HeritageRule extended to Yucatan, Maya lands, c. 1000Commercial influence to American SouthwestPossibly Mississippi, Ohio valleysB. The Aztec Rise to PowerToltec collapse, c. 1150The Toltec Empire lasted until the 12th century, when it was destroyed by the Chitimecs and other attacking groups. The Toltec people were absorbed by the conquerors and in the south they became assimilated with the Maya, subordinates to the people they once conquered. After the fall of the Toltecs, central Mexico fell into a period of chaos and warfare without any single ruling group for the next 200 years, when the Aztecs gained control.Center moves to Mexico valleyLakes used for fishing, farming, transportationAztecs in, early 14th centuryBegin as mercenaries, allies1325, found TenochtitlanDominate by 1434Central Mexico and Lake TexcocoThe Aztects built the city, Tenochtitlan, on an island in the middle of the lake. They put up efforts to control the flooding but this led to most of the lake being drained, leaving a much smaller lake Texcoco west of the city.Lake Texcoco was part of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico was consisted of 5 interconnected major and smaller lakes.
4 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E. C. The Aztec Social ContractTransformation to hierarchical societyService of gods pre-eminentSacrifice increasedSource of political powerMoctezuma IIHead of state and religionMoctezuma II changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened the divide between the nobles (pipiltin) and the commoners (macehualtin) by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces.Moctezuma is seen in history as the ruler of a defeated nation. He is known as weak-willed and indecisive in most cases by historians.The sacrifices were always increasing because the Aztecs thought that the sun god needed more human blood to come up and fight against darkness and save them for that one day. So every day they sacrificed and when it was not a sunny day they continued to sacrifice humans so that they appease the sun god and the day would turn out better and it would be sunny.Moctezuma II was the 9th leader of Tenochtitlan. The first contact between Indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernan Cortes and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.During Moctezuma’s reign, the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. Through warfare, he expanded his territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
5 I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E. D. Religion and the Ideology of ConquestSpiritual and natural world seamlessHundreds of deitiesThree groupsFertility, agriculture, waterCreator godsWarfare, sacrificee.g. HuitzilopochtliAztec tribal godIdentified with sun godSacrificeThe Aztecs were motivated to sacrifice through terror. They were scared that the sun would not come up if they did not sacrifice to the sun god. Sacrifice and Death in Mesoamerica were seen as necessary in order for the world to function and for the continued existence of the world. The Aztecs fought in wars to capture men to sacrifice to their gods. They sacrificed men from other societies or communities instead of their own. On God’s Feast Day, they sacrificed their slaves for their gods, and human sacrifices were offerings to the sun and earth so that the food will grow.Female form for all godsYearly festivals/ceremoniesExpansive calendarSacrifice – To energize the sun god, they sacrificed humans to appease the gods. They believed that the sun fought darkness every night and rose to save mankind and that they had to feed humans to make the sun rise again for that day. They had many beliefs.Types and frequency/degree changed with Aztecs – borrowed from Toltec religious conviction vs. political controlReligious questions – afterlife, good life, do gods existArt has flowers/birds/song and blood Tenochtitlan: The Foundation of HeavenMetropois – central zone of palaces/whitewashed temples Adobe brick residential districts Larger houses for nobility Zoos, gardens for kingGeographically connected to island by four causeways. The Calpulli ruled the neighborhoods.The Aztecs believed in cycles and they were very into calendars. The Aztec calendar wheels have been a source of fascination for centuries. It wasn't just a way to keep time - it was a complete philosophy of time. The Aztecs felt that there was religious significance in every day. They also believed that time went in cycles - ultimately in the repeated destruction and recreation of the world.
6 Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E. Feeding the People: The Economy of the EmpireAgricultureChinampas, man-made floating islands20,000 acreshigh crop yields, 4 times a year, corn/maizeMass population needed to be fedTradeRegular intervals to marketBarter or cacao beans/gold for currencyPochteca – long distance tradeState controlled distribution of tributePrimarily redistributed to nobilityMarketsDaily market at TlatelolcoControlled by pochteca, merchant classRegulated by state
7 II. Aztec Society in Transition Society increasingly hierarchicalWidening Social GulfLife based on calpulli (neighborhood) groupsGoverned by council of family headsNobility came from heads of calpullisMilitary leaders based on success in taking captivesa. Ritual warfare – uniformsAs society grew, widening social disparity – no longer egalitarianScribes, artisans, healers between peasants and nobilityBut…competition not between social classes, but between corporate groupsCalpulliTransformed from clans to groupings by residenceDistribute land, laborMaintain temples, schoolsBasis of military organizationNoble class develops from some calpulliMilitary virtues give them statusSerf-like workers on their landsSocial gaps widenImperial family at head of pipiltinCalpulli of merchants
8 II. Aztec Society in Transition B II. Aztec Society in Transition B. Overcoming Technological Constraints Role of women – relatively equal, but subordinate to menPeasant women – fields, child-rearingRevered as weaversPolygamy among nobility, monogamy among poorCould inherit propertyLimits of technologyWomen – six hours a day grinding corn/maizeCouldn’t be freed from hours of preparing foodControlled vast number of people amazinglyC. A Tribute Empire Most power in hands of Aztec ruler and chief advisor“elected” from best siblings of royal familyritual sacrifice/military dominated all elements of lifeCity-states – as long as they made tribute – they could have autonomyWeaknessesRise of nobles altered dynamicsSociety based on system of terrorBy 1500, Aztec society was in the down, military period – height far earlierGreat SpeakerRules TenochtitlanPrime Minister powerfulSubjugated states could remain autonomousOwe tribute, labor
9 III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas Tihuanaco, Huari (c C.E.)After 1000, smaller regional statesChimor ( )North coast of Peru Irrigated AgricultureThe Inca Rise to Power1. Inca “ruler” – military alliances and campaigns to take over2. Subsequent rulers with names you’ll never remember expanded and consolidated landCuzco areaQuechua-speaking clans (ayllus)HuariControl regions by 1438, under PachacutiTopac YupanquiSon of PachacutiConquered ChimorRule extended to Ecuador, ChileHuayna CapacFurthers conquests of Topac Yupanqui1527, deathTwantinsuyu (empire)From Colombia to Chile To Bolivia, ArgentinaInca Expansion
10 ConquestCult of the Ancestors – Incas believed that their dead ancestors had the power to communicate with the gods."Split inheritance” – deceased rulers would give all of their political power and titles to their successor, but all of their material wealth and palaces went to their male descendants so that the Cult could use them to worship the ruler for eternity.Political power to successorWealth, land, and palaces to male descendants to support the CultResult is continual conquest because the successor had to obtain new lands on which to build their kingdom.
11 The Sun was the highest deity ReligionIncas were deeply influenced by religion.Sun god supremeThe Sun was the highest deityIncas believed that they were the sun’s representative on earthTemple of the Sun at CuzcoCenter of the state religionContained the mummies of the past IncasIncas did not prohibit the worship of local godsHuacas – holy shrines where prayers were offered and sacrifices were made.
13 The Ancient Cities of Peru The Techniques of Inca Imperial RuleCooperation or SubordinationThe Inca rules from his court at CuzcoThe Inca empire was divided into four provinces each with a governor at the headIncas created a bureaucracy that almost all nobles participated in.Local rulers (curacas) could maintain their powers in return for their loyalty to Inca.UnificationIncas spread the Quechua language to give the people a common language.Incas would force conquered people to a new home or move their own Quechua-speaking people to a conquered area to provide the conquered people with an example of ideal individuals.The Ancient Cities of Peru
14 Inca's senior wife links state to moon UnificationComplex systems of roads, bridges, way stations (tambos), and storehouses were built. Inca armies rested at tambos as they traveled.Inca State could benefit allRedistributive economy allowed even the conquered population to receive goods not previously available to them.Building and irrigation projects that were previously impossible could now be achieved with help from new conquests.Gender CooperationGender roles were considered equal and interdependent.Incas emphasized military virtues, which created more inequality between men and women.Gender Cooperation was also seen in cosmologyInca's senior wife links state to moon
15 Comparing Incas and Aztecs Inca Cultural AchievementsMetallurgy – one of the most advanced metalworking civilizations in the Americas.Made weapons and tools and worked with gold, bronze, copper, and silver.Knotted strings (quipu) – used to record numerical information, similar to abacus.Used in accounting. Incas took censuses and recorded financial information.Monumental architecture – created complex irrigation technology and extensive road systems.Inca stone cutting was extremely accurate and fitted together like puzzle pieces.Comparing Incas and AztecsSimilaritiesBuilt on earlier empiresExcellent organizersIntensive agriculture under state that controlled the redistribution and circulation of goods.Kinship-based institutions transformed into a hierarchy with a predominant nobility.Ethnic groups were allowed to survive as long as they acknowledged the sovereignty of the empire and paid tribute.DifferencesAztecs have more developed trade and markets.Slightly different cultures
16 The Other Peoples of the Americas Great variety elsewhereNot all in the Neolithic patternSome use irrigation for agricultureSome formed no statesA. How Many People?Very difficult to determine the exact population because of extermination from European invaders and varied accounts.B. Differing Cultural PatternsArawaks on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola were farmers organized into a hierarchy.Some similar to Polynesian chiefdom-level societies.World Population, c. 1500
17 The Other Peoples of the Americas By 1500…There were 200 languages in North AmericaThe Mississippian mounds had been abandonedThere were two great imperial systems, the Aztecs and IncasAnasazi descendants resided in the adobe pueblos along the Rio Grande.American Indian Diversity in World ContextMesoamerica and the Andes weakened by EuropeansTechnologically behind Europeans; appeared to be backwards.