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AP World History Chapter 11 The Americas on the Eve of Invasion.

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1 AP World History Chapter 11 The Americas on the Eve of Invasion

2 The Toltec Heritage Rule extended to Yucatan Commercial influence to American Southwest Possibly Mississippi, Ohio valleys Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco

3 The Aztec Rise to Power Toltec collapse, c. 1150 –Caused by northern nomads? Aztecs move to Mexico valley –Lakes used for fishing, farming, transportation –City States, common language, and state marriages. –Great fighters and were hired as mercenaries, allies –Tenochtitlan founded in 1325 by Aztecs. –Aztecs practiced human sacrifice.

4 The Aztec Social Contract Transformation to hierarchical society Service of gods pre-eminent –Sacrifice increased –Source of political power Moctezuma II –Head of state and religion

5 Religion and the Ideology of Conquest Spiritual and natural world seamless Hundreds of deities Three groups –Fertility, agriculture, water Creator gods –Warfare, sacrifice –e.g. Huitzilopochtli Aztec tribal god –Identified with sun god –Sacrifice Motivated by religion or terror? Cyclical view of history, Dynastic Cycle Huitzilopochtli Quetzalcoatl

6 Feeding the People: The Economy of the Empire Agriculture –Chinampas, man-made floating islands –High yield –Farming organized by clans Markets –Daily market at Tlatelolco –Controlled by pochteca, merchant class –Regulated by state Chinampas Daily market at Tlatelolco

7 Widening Social Gulf Calpulli –Transformed from clans to groupings by residence –Distribute land, labor –Maintain temples, schools –Basis of military organization Noble class develops from some calpulli –Military virtues give them status –Serf-like workers on their lands Social gaps widen –Imperial family at head of pipiltin Calpulli of merchants Montezuma II

8 Overcoming Technological Constraints Women have various roles –Can own property –No public roles Elite polygamy Most monogamous Tenochtitlan

9 The Inca Rise to Power Cuzco area Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus) Huari Control regions by 1438, under Pachacuti Topac Yupanqui Son of Pachacuti Conquered Chimor Rule extended to Ecuador, Chile Huayna Capac Furthers conquests of Topac Yupanqui 1527, death

10 Inca Cultural Achievements Metallurgy Knotted strings (quipu) –Accounting Monumental architecture

11 Comparing Incas and Aztecs Similarities Built on earlier empires Excellent organizers Intensive agriculture under state control Redistributive economy Kinship transformed to hierarchy Ethnic groups allowed to survive Differences Aztecs have better developed trade, markets

12 A. How Many People? Larger densities in Mesoamerica, Andes B. Differing Cultural Patterns Caribbean islands Some similar to Polynesian societies c. 1500 200 languages in North America Mississipian mounds abandoned Anasazi descendants along Rio Grande C. American Indian Diversity in World Context Two great imperial systems by 1500 Mesoamerica and the Andes Technologically behind Europeans World Population, c. 1500

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