Presentation on theme: "Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Continental Policy and Procedure Jeremy Hadfield, Keith Obert & Jesse Warboys."— Presentation transcript:
1 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Continental Policy and Procedure Jeremy Hadfield, Keith Obert & Jesse Warboys
2 Course Content Fire Sprinkler System Types Responsibility of the InspectorReview of Standard Annual Inspection3 Year Inspections5 Year Inspections10 Year InspectionsObstruction Inspection / InvestigationStandpipe Tests and InspectionsFire Pump Tests and Inspections
3 Types of Sprinkler Systems Wet Type SystemsDry Type SystemsPre-action Type SystemsDeluge Systems
4 Wet System System piping filled completely with water Sprinklers discharge water immediately once the sprinkler element is activated or fused upon reaching their head temperature listingMost common form of fire protection systemTypical applications: office buildings, warehouses, schools, etc.Per NFPA 13, an area must be maintained above 40 degrees Fahrenheit or else another system must be provided (i.e. Dry, Pre-action or Deluge)
6 Dry SystemAir or nitrogen under pressure holds back water at dry pipe valve. When sprinkler element is fused, air (or nitrogen) is released from system piping allowing the dry pipe valve to open.A larger remote area is required to be calculated due to the delay in time it takes for the water to get to the fire. The fire will be larger so more water is necessary.Used in occupancies where there is not adequate heat, such as, attics, canopies, garages, etc.
7 Basic Dry Pipe Valves System Operation Simplest form of dry type systemsRequires water supply, dry pipe valve and compressed air or nitrogen supplyNo form of electric or pneumatic detection requiredSystem OperationAir pressure maintained in piping holds dry pipe valve clapper in closed positionMost dry valves have a water to air pressure ratio of 5:1 (5 psi water : 1 psi air). Low pressure type have up to 12:1 differential.Sprinkler activation releases air pressure and allows the clapper in the dry valve to open
9 Pre-action SystemSystem employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system that may or may not contain pressurized airActivated upon release of supplemental detection which opens a valve to release waterSingle Interlocked:System piping is dryWater will only enter system upon heat/smoke detection activationHigher level of protection then a dry systemTypical applications include: Computer rooms, MRI rooms, etc.
10 Double interlocked: System piping is dry Water will only enter system upon heat/smoke detection as well as a sprinkler fusing which will permit the air in the piping to be discharged from system thus allowing the valve to open.Highest level of protectionTypical applications include: Freezers, and other areas where water cannot be discharged unless there is a fire.
11 Deluge/Pre-action Valve To release system (pneumatic actuator, solenoidvalve, and manual pull station)
12 Pre-action Riser Schematic Water supply to priming chamberthrough restricted orificeControl valve
13 Pressure from priming chamber of Non-interlock Electric / Pneumatic ReleaseElectric solenoidSystem air pressureTo drainTo drainPneumatic actuatorPressure from priming chamber ofdeluge valveActivation of a sprinkler or the electric detection will cause the deluge (preaction) valve to open.An open sprinkler relieves air pressure from the system side of the pneumatic actuator which allowsthe pneumatic actuator to open and relieve pressure from the priming chamber of the deluge valve.Electric detection operates the solenoid valve to relieve pressure from the priming chamber of thedeluge valve.
14 Single Interlock, Electric Release Solenoid valvePressure from primingchamber of deluge valveTo drainActivation of the electric detection opens the solenoid valve which relieves air pressure from thepriming chamber of the deluge valve, allowing the clapper of the deluge valve to open and waterto enter the system. Compressed supervisory air is maintained in the sprinkler piping to initiatean alarm if piping or sprinklers break or fail.
15 Double Interlock Electric / Pneumatic Release To drainPneumaticactuatorSolenoid valvePressure frompriming chamberof deluge valveSystem AirPressure½” x 1 ½” nippleBoth sprinkler activation and detection activation are required to operate a double interlock system.Operation of detection opens the solenoid valve, but pressure is still held in the priming chamber untiloperation of a sprinkler relieves air pressure from the pneumatic actuator which allows the pneumaticactuator to open and relieve pressure from the priming chamber of the deluge valve through the pneumaticactuator to drain.
17 Deluge System Piping is dry Sprinklers are always open (sprinkler elements have been removed)Detection in the form of a pilot line system, or electric detection will permit water to enter the piping and flow from the open sprinklers immediately.Pneumatic operation (pilot line) incorporates a separate piping network filled with compressed air with special releasing devicesThis type of system is what is typically shown in Hollywood moviesTypical applications include: Transformers, ethanol plants, cooling towers, and other high hazard occupancies
18 Deluge Valve To sprinklers To release system (pneumatic actuator, solenoidvalve, and manual pull station)The priming chamber is pressurized with waterthrough a restricted orifice from the supply sideof the control valve holding clapper (6) closedagainst rubber seat (8). The clapper is suspendedon rubber diaphragm (2). When pressure isrelieved by the releasing system, the clapperrises, allowing water to enter the outlet chamber.Supply
19 Responsibility of the Inspector ****Contact the alarm company**** The inspection of a fire sprinkler system is strictly limited to the operational readiness and integrity of the system.NFPA 25 does not require the inspection to include investigation for Code violations or design deficiencies.The question that must be answered at the end of an inspection is: Will the system operate as intended if a fire should occur?
20 Visually Inspect the System A visual inspection of the system from the floor is a clearly defined limit in NFPA 25SprinklersPipe and fittingsHangersSeismic bracing/restraintsComponents in areas that are not accessible do not require inspectionAbove suspended ceilingsInaccessible areas below floorsInaccessible atticsInaccessible rooms
21 Owner’s Responsibility “The responsibility for properly maintaining a water-based fire protection system shall be that of the owner of the property.”As the inspecting contractor, we can only make recommendations for needed repairs or replacement. It is ultimately the owner’s responsibility to assure the work is completed.
22 ImpairmentIf at any time during the inspection it becomes obvious that the system will not operate, then immediately terminate the inspection, red tag the control valve and fire department connection “System Out of Service”, and contact your supervisor or office. This includes fire pumps that are out of service. It is the owners responsibility to contact their insurance company, alarm company and AHJ.
23 Standard Inspection Report All of these questions are to be answered by the owner.If the occupancy has changed, make detailed note on report. This is not necessarily a deficiency nor is it your responsibility to do a design evaluation.Describe any modifications that may have been made including relocated walls.
25 B. Examples of obstructions include storing product to close to sprinklers on shelving; ducts, overhead doors, hanging signs, unit heaters, etc. E. & F. See 10 year testing schedule for older sprinklers G. Solder link sprinklers in cooking ventilation systems must be replaced every year
26 N. If it is not obvious that building additions or alterations are properly protected, then note this on a separate sheet. Design evaluations are not part of a regular inspection. O. ESFR and large drop sprinklers require a minimum clearance of 36” from deflector to top of storage. All others require 18”. P. Make notation on this line if the system is pipe schedule sizing and not hydraulically designed. Q. Sprinklers manufactured before 1920 must be replaced.
27 In addition to the above, a fire department connection must have unobstructed access and there must be enoughroom to manipulate a spanner wrench on the couplings.
28 A separate backflow preventer test report must be completed for each assembly.
29 Antifreeze systems should have a sign indicating the location of the system, type of antifreeze, system capacityand antifreeze-water mixture.Must use glycerin in CPVC pipe.No new antifreeze will be installed due to new NFPAcode requirements. No “listed” antifreeze available on themarket.
30 NFPA requires air supplies from a “reliable” source, but it is not defined. If the compressor has a plugged orswitched connection, then this is a deficiency. Thecompressor should be hard wired to any available circuit. Itdoes not have to be on emergency power.
31 The electric, pneumatic or hydraulic releasing system with deluge and preaction valves must be part of the inspectionto assure operation of the system. Electric detection mustbe tested by a qualified technician.
32 If alarms are monitored at a remote location, then verify that flow and supervisory alarms were received.Supervision of alarms at a remote location may or maynot be a code issue. The lack of supervision should benoted.Local water flow alarms must operate within 5 minutes ofwater flow, or 90 seconds to alarm service.
33 Control valves should be locked in the open position at a minimum, but electric supervision is preferred.
34 Main drain tests must be conducted on every system in the facility. Main drain tests must be compared to all previous tests and when a 10% reduction in static and/or residual flow pressures are observed, then an obstruction investigation must be recommended.Main drain tests must be conducted with the normal water supply with fire pumps in service.
36 If there is any type of impairment that prevents the system from operating and corrective action is not taken immediately, then contact the office or your supervisor. Red tag the riser and fire department connection “System Out of Service”.
37 Comment CategoriesImpairment: Any failure of a component that would prevent operation of the system, including pumps that are out of service. Terminate inspection and follow impairment procedure.Deficiency: Any condition, component or item that may impede the ability of the system to control a fire, but will not prevent the system from operating. Examples include obstructions to sprinkler discharge, minimum clearances not maintained, no 3, 5 or 10 year inspections, the need for a design evaluation by a design professional, etc.
38 3 Year InspectionsFire hose to be tested at 3 year intervals if over 5 years oldFull flow trip test of dry and preaction valvesAHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) can modify and accept lesser requirements than NFPA 25 code
39 5 Year InspectionsInterior of all valves, strainers, filters and orifices on trimInterior of preaction and deluge valves with external reset capabilities, strainers, filters and orifices on trimStandpipe and Hose SystemsHose connections and hose rack (if still in service).Hydrostatic test of standpipe and hose systemsFlow test standpipe and hose systemsObstruction inspection (not investigation)Replace or test gauges for accuracy
40 10 Year InspectionAll tests and inspections listed under 5 years in addition to the following:Test or replace dry sprinklers at 10 year intervalsVerify that fast or quick response sprinklers that are 20 years old or older have been tested at 10 year intervalVerify that standard response sprinklers that are 50 years old or older have been tested at 10 year interval
41 Sprinkler TestingSample sprinklers taken for testing shall consist of 4 sprinklers or 1% of sprinklers in an area, whichever is greaterCannot use sprinklers in head cabinet as test sampleQuick or fast response sprinklers to be tested at 20 yearsStandard sprinklers to be tested at 50 years
42 Inspection vs. Investigation ObstructionInspection vs. InvestigationChapter 14 of NFPA 25 describes two distinctly different activities relating to obstructions in sprinkler systems.An obstruction inspection is required at 5 year intervals and is intended to be very minimal to avoid lengthy system outage. It should be conducted at the same time as the required 5 year interior inspection of control valves, alarm valves, dry valves etc. Inspections are intended to reveal potential problems that would require a more thorough investigation procedure.
43 Obstruction Investigation When an obstruction inspection reveals a potential problem, then a more in-depth obstruction investigation must be conducted. The extent of the investigation is dictated by the suspected obstruction material and will require detailed pre-planning to minimize system downtime and still achieve the desired results. Investigation procedures are described in Annex D of NFPA 25.
44 Standpipe Flow Testing Preplanning a standpipe flow test is critical. The following guidelines are based on perfect conditions that seldom exist. Review options with a design manager to achieve the best results toward satisfying the intent of the code.Number of standpipes to flow?Most remote and highest standpipe to flow 500 gpmEach additional standpipe to flow 250 gpmMaximum 4 standpipes or 1250 gpm in non-sprinklered buildingMaximum 3 standpipes or 1000 gpm in fully sprinklered buildingi.e. 500 GPM (Most Remote), 250 GPM, 250 GPM
45 Where will water discharge? Is there adequate drainageHow many lengths of hose will be requiredAre pressure gauge outlets on the top of all standpipes?Use good test gaugesGauge outlets that are directly across from hose valves will not give accurate readings.Is there a pump or pumps?Suction and discharge readings must be taken simultaneously with pressure readings at the top of standpipesChurn readings and flow readingsTake pressure readings at water main entrance to buildingResults of standpipe tests must be reviewed by a designer
46 Pump Testing Preparation Know the type of pump and driverDiesel or electricHorizontal shaft split cast centrifugalVertical shaft in-line centrifugalVertical shaft turbine
48 Water discharge location Tachometer – do not rely on engine mounted tachometerPitot tube with 0 – 100 psi liquid filled gaugeVoltage and amperage gaugeCalibrated pump discharge and suction pressure gaugesTest forms to include factory certified pump test curve (if available)
49 Pre-test Functions Record pump data plate information Record driver data plate informationRecord controller data plate informationCheck driver coupling alignmentDoes pump have a flow meter or test header or both
50 Verify proper placement of suction and discharge gauges Notify alarm companyIsolate fire protection system from pump dischargeConfirm supply pipe control valves are openComponents are properly lubricated
51 Note special features: Packing gland discharge should be approximately 1 drop per second with pump offNote special features:Orifice plate (not allowed by current standard)Pump suction control valveMain relief valve (should be closed during test)Flow meterTransfer switch
52 Cautions:Never start new pump without approval of factory representativesNever exceed 60 psi pitot pressuresImmediately turn pump off if suction pressure from city drops to 20 psiTransfer switch (if supplied) must be part of any pump testPump manufacturer’s representative
53 Remember:During the initial pump turnover test, the pump manufacturer’s representative is only interested in the performance of the pump. If the water supply is not adequate, it is the fire protection contractor’s responsibility to determine the problem.
54 Fundamental Test Procedures Minimum test must include three points:Churn100% pump rating150% pump ratingRecommend additional points for 2000 gpm or larger pumpsAHJ may stipulate additional points
55 Churn Rated and 150% flows Record suction and discharge pressures Record amperage and voltageRecord R.P.M.Rated and 150% flowsRecord pitot pressures and equivalent flow for each nozzle
56 Check function of pump accessories: Casing relief valveAir release valveMain relief valveAlarmsController and transfer switchJockey pumpConduct six automatic and six manual startsCheck for overheating of system componentsFire pump should be exercised for a minimum of onehour
57 Controller settings:Jockey pump off at 10 psi above fire pump discharge churn pressureJockey pump on at fire pump discharge pressureFire pump on at 10 psi below churn discharge pressureFire pump off should be set for manual stopCheck sequential start if multiple pumps in series or parallelSet redundant pump at 10 psi below main pump
58 Electric Drivers Check controller trouble signals Pump running alarmLoss of phaseRemote alarmsShould be set for manual stopTest operation of transfer switch
60 Discharge CurveSuction CurveApprox. 120%of rated PSINet Pump Curve150% of rated flow65% of rated pressure (min.)100% rated pressureand rated flow
61 Common Pump Deficiencies Net pressures that are more than 5% below rated pressuresJockey pump failures (this is not an impairment)Significant reduction in suction pressures from previous yearsFire pump and jockey pump controller sensing lines tied togetherIncorrect start-stop pressures for jockey pump and fire pump (these should be corrected as part of the inspection and test)
62 Common Pump Deficiencies Jockey pump controller wired into fire pump controllerNo test header, hydrants or standpipe to allow for full flow testing of pumps with flow meters (full flow test must be conducted every 3 years)
63 Impossible Pressures100% net pressures that are lower than 150% net pressures150% net pressures that are equal to or higher than the net churn pressureStatic suction pressures that are lower than suction flow pressuresAny pressure reading that increases as more water is flowedAny of the above may indicate a bad gauge(s), gaugeconnection or an error during the test.
64 Before You Leave the Inspection Site Double check all control valves, trim valves and test valves for proper open or closed positionFire pumps and jockey pumps switched to automaticExhaust auxiliary drain valves on dry pipe and preaction systemsContact the alarm company