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Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew PowerPoint ® Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Cell Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew PowerPoint ® Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Cell Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew PowerPoint ® Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function 3 3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 1 to 102

2 The Nucleus Key Note The nucleus contains DNA, the genetic instructions within chromosomes. The instructions tell how to synthesize the proteins that determine cell structure and function. Chromosomes also contain various proteins that control expression of the genetic information. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

3 The Nucleus Properties of the Nucleus Exceeds other organelles in size Controls cell structure and function Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

4 The Nucleus Chromosome Structure Location of DNA Protein synthesis instructions Chromatin – uncoiled version Humans have 23 pairs Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

5 The Nucleus Chromosome Structure Figure 3-17

6 The Nucleus Key Note Genes are the functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins. The creation of specific proteins involves multiple enzymes and three types of RNA. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

7 The Nucleus The Genetic Code – Chemical Language Triplet code Comprises three nitrogenous bases Specifies a particular amino acid A Gene Functional unit of heredity Sequence of triplet codes that codes for a specific protein Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8 The Nucleus Protein Synthesis Transcription—the production of RNA from a single strand of DNA Occurs in nucleus Produces messenger RNA (mRNA) Triplets specify codons on mRNA Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

9 Figure of 5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Gene Promoter Triplet 1 Triplet 2 Triplet 3 Triplet Complementary triplets RNA polymerase Codon 1 RNA nucleotide KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine mRNA strand Codon 1 Codon 2 Codon 3 Codon 4 (stop signal)

10 Figure of 5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Gene KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine

11 Figure of 5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Gene KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine Promoter Triplet 1 Triplet 2 Triplet 3 Triplet Complementary triplets RNA polymerase

12 Figure of 5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Gene Codon 1 RNA nucleotide KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine Promoter Triplet 1 Triplet 2 Triplet 3 Triplet Complementary triplets RNA polymerase

13 Figure of 5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Gene Codon 1 RNA nucleotide KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine mRNA strand Codon 1 Codon 2 Codon 3 Codon 4 (stop signal) Promoter Triplet 1 Triplet 2 Triplet 3 Triplet Complementary triplets RNA polymerase

14 The Nucleus Protein Synthesis Translation—the assembling of a protein by ribosomes, using the information carried by the mRNA molecule tRNAs carry amino acids Anticodons bind to mRNA Occurs in cytoplasm Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

15 Figure of 6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon. The small and large ribosomal subunits interlock around the mRNA strand. Large ribosomal subunit A second tRNA arrives at the adjacent binding site of the ribosome. The anticodon of the second tRNA binds to the next mRNA codon. Stop codon Peptide bond The first amino acid is detached from its tRNA and is joined to the second amino acid by a peptide bond. The ribosome moves one codon farther along the mRNA strand; the first tRNA detaches as another tRNA arrives. The chain elongates until the stop codon is reached; the components then separate. Small ribosomal subunit Large ribosomal subunit Completed polypeptide

16 Figure of 6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon.

17 Figure of 6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon. The small and large ribosomal subunits interlock around the mRNA strand. Large ribosomal subunit

18 Figure of 6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon. The small and large ribosomal subunits interlock around the mRNA strand. Large ribosomal subunit A second tRNA arrives at the adjacent binding site of the ribosome. The anticodon of the second tRNA binds to the next mRNA codon. Stop codon

19 Figure of 6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon. The small and large ribosomal subunits interlock around the mRNA strand. Large ribosomal subunit A second tRNA arrives at the adjacent binding site of the ribosome. The anticodon of the second tRNA binds to the next mRNA codon. Stop codon Peptide bond The first amino acid is detached from its tRNA and is joined to the second amino acid by a peptide bond. The ribosome moves one codon farther along the mRNA strand; the first tRNA detaches as another tRNA arrives.

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure of 6 KEY Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil (RNA) Thymine KEY NUCLEUS mRNA Amino acid tRNA Anticodon tRNA binding sites Small ribosomal subunit mRNA strandStart codon The mRNA strand binds to the small ribosomal subunit and is joined at the start codon by the first tRNA, which carries the amino acid methionine. Binding occurs between comple- mentary base pairs of the codon and anticodon. The small and large ribosomal subunits interlock around the mRNA strand. Large ribosomal subunit A second tRNA arrives at the adjacent binding site of the ribosome. The anticodon of the second tRNA binds to the next mRNA codon. Stop codon Peptide bond The first amino acid is detached from its tRNA and is joined to the second amino acid by a peptide bond. The ribosome moves one codon farther along the mRNA strand; the first tRNA detaches as another tRNA arrives. The chain elongates until the stop codon is reached; the components then separate. Small ribosomal subunit Large ribosomal subunit Completed polypeptide

21 Coloring Workbook The packet will be due the day before the test. You can now complete numbers and 16.


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