An example of this is found in Mangroves where the mud reduces the oxygen availability. The porous nature of the aerating roots really solve the problem. Aerating Roots
Haustoria – Parasitic roots
Transportation in Roots
Root Cross Section
Soils Gravel Sand Silt Clay Organic
Ideally, your soil should have a combination of large and small pore spaces. Again, organic matter is the key, because it encourages the formation of aggregate, or crumbs, or soil. Organic matter also absorbs water and retains it until it is needed by plant roots. Every soil has a different combination of these five basic components. By balancing them you can dramatically improve your soil's healthy and your garden's productivity. But first, you need to know what kind of soil you have.
Fertilizer Components The first number in a fertilizer formula is the nitrogen content..... Nitrogen is used by plants for producing leaf growth and greener, lusher leaves. The second number in a fertilizer formula is the phosphorus content..... Phosphorus is used by plant to increase fruit development and to produce a strong root system. The third number in a fertilizer formula is the potassium (potash) content..... Potassium is used by plants for flower color and size. It is also important to the strength of the plant. For example, a 100 lb. bag of converted to weight equates to 25 lbs. nitrogen, 50 lbs. phosphate, and 25 lbs. potash.
Other Plant Nutrients Calcium Activates enzymes Important for: Cell-wall Structure Promotes Cell growth and division Helps mineral uptake (e.g. nitrogen etc.)
Sulphur Structural component of many plant chemicals Gives flavour to vegetables Essential to produce Chlorophyll Readily lost by leaching and may need adding to soil Some water supplies may contain enough
Magnesium Essential for Chlorophyll Important in cell chemical conversions Used for fruit and nut formation and for seed germination Easily leached by watering Can be applied as foliar spray to correct deficiencies
Micronutrients Iron, Manganese, Boron, Zinc, Molybdenum, Chlorine, Nickel, Sodium, Cobalt, Silicon, Note: These are required in small concentrations and are involved in a variety of plant chemical processes (See information sheet regarding “Plant Nutrition” on our website in the links page)
pH Value Refers to the alkalinity or acidity of the soil. Whether it is acidic, neutral or alkaline will have a marked effect on the availability of minerals to the plant roots…the preferred pH varying from species to species.
Nutrients and pH
Protect plants from pathogens Reduce fertilizer use Reduce stunting Decrease shock Generally increase overall growth
Composting Medium Moisture Browns and Greens Sunny Spot Turn, Turn, Turn Accelerator??? No, no’s
Bamboo Sap Tea
Hairs on the leaf Waxy leaf surfaces Large surface area Transluscent windows Succulent leaves Leaf borne glands Inclusions of crystalline minerals A transformation into petals A transformation into spines A transformation into insect traps A transformation into bulbs A transformation into tendrils A transformation into bracts Sliced leaves Leaf AdaptationsLeaf Adaptations
Coniferous Trees and Shrubs (Gymnosperms ……. Naked Seeds)