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MBAA-Rocky Mountain District Meeting Beth McCann Application Engineer August 15, 2007

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Presentation on theme: "MBAA-Rocky Mountain District Meeting Beth McCann Application Engineer August 15, 2007"— Presentation transcript:

1 MBAA-Rocky Mountain District Meeting Beth McCann Application Engineer August 15, 2007

2 Contents What is Activated Carbon Activated Carbon in the Brewing Process Granular Activated Carbon for Water Purification Powdered Activated Carbon to Decolorize Beer Extruded or Granular Activated Carbon for CO 2 Purification Sterilization Process

3 Introduction To Norit  Worldwide Leader in Activated Carbon  5 Activation Plants  4 Reactivation Plants  Broadest Product Line  7 Different Raw Materials  Turnkey Approach  Systems Capability

4 Turnkey Capability  Technical Service Laboratory Design  Systems PAC Dosing and Silo Systems GAC Adsorbers  Change-out Service  Reactivation

5 What is Activated Carbon ?

6 A Microcrystalline and / or Amorphous Form of Carbon A Rigid “Sponge” of Carbon The Active Agent in a Separation Process Network of Pores Surrounded by Carbon An Adsorbent It Is NOT a Chemical Compound

7 Activation Methods Steam Activation: “Burn out” the internal pore structure by reaction with steam in a controlled environment at 900°C to 1000°C Chemical Activation: Mixing of milled wood and phosphoric acid then activate

8 Raw Materials  Lignite Coal GAC & PAC  Bituminous Coal GAC & PAC  Wood GAC & PAC  Peat GAC & PAC, EXT  Olive Pits EXT  Coconut GAC & PAC

9 Activated Carbon Pore Structure Pore Diameter Micropores: <2 nm Mesopores: 2-50 nm Macropores: >50 nm

10 Pore Size Comparison

11 Forms of Activated Carbon Powdered (PAC) 100% Less Than 180 Microns Granular (GAC) US Std. Mesh Sizes Extruded Pellets (EXT) Diameter in mm

12 Choosing the Right Carbon

13 Adsorption

14 Adsorption * Surface Phenomenon * Accumulation of Substance at a Surface * Two Types - Physical (Van Der Waals Forces) - Chemisorption (Chemical Bond) * Capacity vs. Rate

15 Adsorption process Step 1 : Mass Transport of an impurity (solute oradsorbate) from the fluid to the carbon particle surface film; Step 2 : Diffusion of adsorbate into the pore; Step 3 : Adsorption on interior surface or pore wall.

16 What Controls Adsorption? 1.Fluid Contacted (Solution or Gas) pH, viscosity, temperature, chemical composition 2.Type of Impurity concentration, solubility, molecular size, polarity, competitive adsorption 3.Carbon Type pore volume, dosage, particle size, activation method 4.Process Design liquid or gas phase, PAC or GAC, contact time, temperature

17 Activated Carbon in the Brewing Process Water Purification Decolorization of Beer CO 2 Purification

18 Water Purification

19 Topics Organic contaminants Disinfection by-products Residual disinfectants Backwashing Sterilization of bed

20 Water Purification Removal of organic contaminants Organics (taste and odor components) Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) Synthetic Organic Compounds (SOCs) Natural Organic Compounds(NOCs)

21 Water Purification Removal of disinfection by-products Disinfection by-products (DBPs) Trihalomethanes(THMs) Haloacetic Acids(HAAs) Cl CC CC Br H HH H ChloroformDichlorobromomethane DibromochloromethaneBromoform

22 Water Purification Removal of disinfectants Dechlorination 1. Oxidation of carbon surface C* + HOCl + H 2 O C* O + H 3 O + + Cl - C* H + OCl - + H 2 O C* O + H 3 O + + Cl - 2. Surface oxide formation HOCl + C* C* HOCl 3. Reduction of hypochlorite 2HOCl + 2H 2 O2H 3 O + + 2Cl - + O 2 C* represents activated carbon

23 Water Purification Removal of Disinfectants Chloramine removal Mono pH < 5 = Monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) formation C* + NH 2 Cl + H 2 O NH 3 + C*O + H + + Cl - C* + 2NH 2 Cl + H 2 O N 2 + 2HCl + C* + H 2 O Di pH > 5 = Dichloramine formation NHCl 2 + H 2 O + C* NH 3 + H + + Cl - + C*O C* represents activated carbon

24 Water Purification Initial Removes dust and fines Stratifies the GAC bed In-service Removes trapped suspended solids Removes inactive biomass following steaming Maintains good hydraulics Backwashing of GAC Bed

25 Water Purification Steam Sterilization of GAC Bed Backwash to remove solids Sterilize with steam Maintained for 15 minutes after reaching 140°F Backwash with ambient water

26 Water Purification Caustic Sterilization of GAC Bed Backwash to remove solids Sterilize with 2% by wt NaOH or Na 2 CO 3 Same solution can clean lines downstream Rinse filter, carbon and lines downstream

27 Beer Decolorization

28 Production of Malternatives Removal of Color and Taste from Beer Decolorization - chemically activated carbon Flavor removal - steam activated carbon Powdered Activated Carbon Used Batch Operation

29 CO 2 Purification

30  In breweries, CO 2 is recovered as a by-product of fermentation. It can then be purified, compressed and liquefied for further use in packaging, tank counter-pressure, carbonation, or the preparation of dry ice block or pellets. Its many uses include:  The carbonation of beer, wine, soft drinks and mineral water;  The bottling beverages for preservation during transportation and shelf storage;  Tank pressurization

31 CO 2 Purification Carbon dioxide gas is passed through a CO 2 water wash scrubber to remove water soluble fermentation impurities. The gas then passes through an activated carbon bed to remove non- water soluble fermentation impurities - aldehydes, hydrogen sulfide, ketones, mercaptans, etc. After purification, the carbon dioxide is then compressed and dried to remove the water vapor. In the liquefying condenser, the CO 2 gas is liquefied to remove any remaining non-condensables (O 2, N 2 ). Courtesy of The Wittemann Company, Inc.

32 Are there any questions

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