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Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification Topics Contaminants in Water Water Purification Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification Topics Contaminants in Water Water Purification Technologies."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification

3 Topics Contaminants in Water Water Purification Technologies

4 Contaminants In Water Cations Anions Inorganic Ions (Dissolved Solids) Natural Man Made Organics Non Dissolved Solid Matter Colloids Particles Bacteria, Algae, Micro fungi, Endotoxin Microorganisms

5 Water Purification Technologies

6 Filtration Chlorine removal Scale Control Reverse Osmosis Ion Exchange Ultra filtration Ultraviolet Storage Tank Distribution Loops Distillation

7 Filtration Depth Filters - Entrapment Screen Filters - Sieving, Membranes

8 Depth Filter Media Cotton Fibers, Glass Fibers Polypropylene, Nylon Filaments, Sand Grains Pore Rating Nominal (98% Removal) Range 0.5-1000um or combinations Thickness 10-30mm

9 Membrane Micro Filter Media Nylon, Teflon, Cellulose Esters Pore Rating Absolute (100% Removal) Range 0.1 to 10 um Thickness 150um

10 Chlorine Removal Activated Carbon Raw Materials Coconut Shell, Wood, Lignite Oil / Plastic Activation Heat, Chemical Activation generates a highly porous structure with a large surface area for Wood, Lignite. Surface area 1000 m2 /gram Remove Chlorine Remove Organics Activated Carbon Bead

11 Sodium Bisulfite Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO 3 ) is a reducing agent capable of dechlorinating the feed water to a Reverse Osmosis System. Dechlorination reactions NaHSO 3 + CL 2 + H 2 O NaHSO 4 + 2HCl 1 ppm of chlorine (CL 2 ) requires 1.46 ppm of NaHSO 3 To ensure complete Dechlorination Add 10% excess of sodium bisulphite

12 Ion Exchange

13 Ion Exchange Process

14 Ion Exchange Regeneration


16 Reverse osmosis (RO) theory raw water High pressure Feed water under pressure Reject water Semi-permeable membrane Permeate water drain or recycle Low pressure Purified water

17 Thin Film Composite Membrane Thin Film Layer Support Structure

18 Reverse Osmosis


20 Performance 95 - 99% Rejection of Inorganic Ions 99% Rejection of Organics 99% Rejection of Particles and Microorganisms Recovery 10 - 65% of Feed Water

21 Ion Exchange

22 Mixed Bed Exchange Process


24 Mixed Bed Regeneration


26 Electro Deionization


28 Ultra-Filtration Can be used for WFI or for Water For Final Rinsing for parenteral manufacturing (if permitted) Removes organic contaminants, such as endotoxins Operation at 80°C, and sterilization at 121 °C

29 Ultra-Violet

30 Oxidation of Organic Compound

31 HCHO + 2OH. UV HCOOH + H 2 O Formaldehyde Formic Acid + Water HCOOH+2OH. UV CO 2 + 2H 2 O FORMIC ACID CORBONDIOXIDE+WATER

32 Storage Tank Design Considerations Sized with Make-Up system Store water protected from bacterial growth Vent filter Sanitary Overflow Tank UV light or Spray Ball Conical bottom Steam or Ozone sterilization Rupture Disk should always have monitor Smaller the better

33 Typical Water Storage And Distribution Schematic Water must be kept circulating Spray ball Cartridge filter 1 µm Outlets Hygienic pump Optional in-line filter 0,2 µm UV light Feed Water Hydrophobic air filter & burst disc

34 Distribution Loops Design Considerations Effective control of bacteria Most microorganisms are destroyed at 80°C which is a typical hot loop temperature WFI systems will incorporate heat exchangers and monitoring in the distribution loop to maintain 80°C Some purified water systems will use heat at 80°C to perform periodic sanitizations

35 Distribution Loops There should be no dead legs Stagnant water inside valve Ball valves are unacceptable Bacteria can grow when the valve is closed The water is contaminated as it passes through the valve

36 Distribution Loops

37 Distillation

38 Thank You For Attending Saima Muzaffar 2 nd February, 2012

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