8Critical Fracture Parameters Proppant Selection The Ideal ProppantCrush resistance / high strengthSlightly deformable, not brittleNo embedmentLow specific gravityChemical resistanceNo flowbackComplete system compatibilityReady availabilityCost effectiveReality: The Ideal Proppant Doesn’t Exist!!
9Critical Fracture Parameters Proppant Selection Infinite vs. Finite ConductivityFormation PermeabilityDepth/Closure StressFormation Ductility/EmbedmentWhat is Brinell Hardness?
14Critical Fracture Parameters Depth/Closure Stress Brown vs. Northern White?API 19C (ISO ) Guidelines Are Specific!!Sieve DistributionKrumbein FactorsTurbidityAcid SolubilityK-Value (Also Called Crush Resistance)Point Where Fines >10.0%Relative Number Only!!
15Critical Fracture Parameters Median Particle Diameter SPE (2003)Particle Sieve Distribution VariationsField Samples – 20/40 N. 25X0.545 mm0.703 mmCourtesy: PropTester – Houston TX
16Critical Fracture Parameters Median Particle Diameter Each Proppant Sample Passes ISO Guidelines!Flow Capacity DecreasesMPD = mmMPD = mmCourtesy: PropTester – Houston TX
18Critical Fracture Parameters Beta Factor A Quantity Relating Pressure Loss In The Fracture to Liquid or Gas Production Rates (velocities).Governed by Forchheimer’s EquationDarcy EffectsNon-Darcy EffectsInertial Effect2 - Dominate!PSD Effects Beta
30SummaryProper fracture design and ultimately, fracture optimization, cannot and will not happen without sound engineering practices!Without sound engineering, initial production rates, ultimate recovery, NPV, and rate-of-return will be compromised.At the End of the Day……SPE
31ConclusionsUnderstanding the rock mechanics is essential to consistently achieving high conductivity fractures.McGuire and Sikora (1960) holds true regardless of reservoir type and ultimately dictates reservoir and production performance.Fracture conductivity and dimensionless fracture conductivity ultimately govern the initial production rates and ultimate recoveries regardless of the type of reservoir lithology.SPE
32ConclusionsCase A (Marcellus Shale) and Case B (Eagle Ford Shale) matches, illustrate the importance of achieving high conductivity transverse fractures in a horizontal wellbores.Increasing fracture conductivity, regardless of reservoir type, results in a significant positive impact on ROR and NPV.SPE
33GoFrac, LLCTHANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND TO THE FORT WORTH SPE SECTION FOR INVITING ME TO MAKE THIS PRESENTATION. QUESTIONS??