Presentation on theme: "Rock & Fluid Properties Dr. Eissa Mohamed Shokir"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rock & Fluid Properties Dr. Eissa Mohamed Shokir PGE 363ByDr. Eissa Mohamed Shokir
2 COURSE DESCRIPTIONSystematic theoretical and laboratory study of physical properties of petroleum reservoir rocksLithologyPorosityCompressibilityPermeabilityFluid saturationsCapillary characteristicsRock stressFluid-rock interaction
3 Course ObjectivesBy the last day of class, the student should be able to:Define porosity; discuss the factors which effect porosity and describe the methods of determining values of porosity;Define the coefficient of isothermal compressibility of reservoir rock and describe methods for determining values of formation compressibility;Reproduce the Darcy equation in differential form, explain its meaning, integrate the equation for typical reservoir systems, discuss and calculate the effect of fractures and channels, and describe methods for determining values of absolute permeability;
4 Course ObjectivesExplain boundary tension and wettability and their effect on capillary pressure, describe methods of determining values of capillary pressure, and convert laboratory capillary pressure values to reservoir conditions;Describe methods of determining fluid saturations in reservoir rock and show relationship between fluid saturation and capillary pressure;Define resistivity, electrical formation resistivity factor, resistivity index, saturation exponent, and cementation factor and show their relationship and uses; discuss laboratory measurement of electrical properties of reservoir rocks; and demonstrate the calculations necessary in analyzing laboratory measurements;
5 Course ObjectivesDefine effective permeability, relative permeability, permeability ratio; reproduce typical relative permeability curves and show effect of saturation history on relative permeability; illustrate the measurement of relative permeability; and demonstrate some uses of relative permeability data.Describe three-phase flow in reservoir rock and explain methods of displaying three-phase effective permeabilities.Demonstrate the techniques of averaging porosity, permeability, and reservoir pressure data.Demonstrate capability to perform calculations relating to all concepts above.
6 Cross Section Of A Petroleum System (Foreland Basin Example)Overburden RockSeal RockReservoir RockSource RockUnderburden RockBasement RockTop Oil WindowTop Gas WindowGeographic Extent of Petroleum SystemPetroleum Reservoir (O)Fold-and-Thrust Belt(arrows indicate relative fault motion)EssentialElementsofPetroleumSystemOSedimentaryBasin FillStratigraphicExtent ofPod of ActiveExtent of Prospect/FieldExtent of Play
7 PETROLEUM SYSTEMFrom Schlumberger Oilfield GlossaryTiming of formation of the major elements of a petroleum system, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela.
8 DEFINITIONS - SEDIMENTARY ROCK Clastic Sedimentary Rocks(Such asShale, Siltstone, and Sandstone)Consist of Broken Fragments ofPre-Existing Rock (cf. Detrital)Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks (andEvaporites) May Form by ChemicalPrecipitation or Organic ActivityRock Formed from the WeatheredProducts of Pre-Existing Rocks andTransported by Water, Wind, andGlaciers
9 CLASTIC AND CARBONATE ROCKS Clastic RocksConsist Primarily of Silicate MineralsAre Classified on the Basis of:- Grain Size- Mineral CompositionCarbonate RocksConsist Primarily of Carbonate Minerals(i.e. Minerals With a CO Anion Group)- Predominately Calcite (Limestone)- Predominately Dolomite (Dolomiteor Dolostone)3-2Classified by Grain Size and Texture
10 SEDIMENTARY ROCK TYPES Relative AbundancesMudstone(Siltstoneand shale;clastic)~75%Sandstoneand conglomerate(clastic)~11%Limestone andDolomite(carbonate)~14%This slide shows the relative abundance of the major sedimentary rock types. These rocks comprise approximately 99% of all sedimentary rocks, including hydrocarbon source rocks and traps. Sedimentary rock can be divided into two major classes.CLASTICS- Sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and shale- Comprised mainly of silicate minerals- Classified on the basis of grain size and mineral compositionCARBONATES- limestone and dolomite- consist mainly of the carbonate minerals calcite(limestone) or dolomite (dolostone)
11 Grain-Size Classification for Clastic Sediments NameMillimetersMicrometersBoulderCobblePebbleGranuleVery Coarse SandCoarse SandMedium SandFine SandVery Fine SandCoarse SiltMedium SiltFine SiltVery Fine SiltClay4,096256644126.96.36.1990.0620.0310.0160.0080.0045002501256231168(modified from Blatt, 1982)Commonly, phi-sizes are usedfor sediment analysis
12 DUNHAM’S CLASSIFICATION - CARBONATES Carbonate rocks can be classified according to the texture and grain size.From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
13 GENERATION, MIGRATION, AND TRAPPING OF HYDROCARBONS SealSealFault(impermeable)Oil/watercontact (OWC)Hydrocarbonaccumulationin thereservoir rockMigration routeSealSeveral conditions must be satisfied for an economic hydrocarbon accumulation to exist. First, there must be sedimentary rocks that have good source rock characteristics and have reached thermal maturity. Second, the hydrocarbons must have migrated from the source rock to a potential reservoir, which must have adequate porosity and permeability. Finally, there must be a trap to arrest the hydrocarbon migration and hold sufficient quantities to make the prospect economic. Hydrocarbon traps usually consist of an impervious layer (seal), such as shale, above the reservoir and barrier such as a fault or facies pinch that terminates the reservoir.ReservoirrockTop of maturitySource rock
14 DESCRIBING A RESERVOIR Structural CharacterizationSince petroleum reservoirs are generally located many thousands of feet below the surface, it is necessary to use sophisticated tools, such as wireline logs, to gather important information about the reservoirs. This information is then interpreted by highly trained industry professionals, using various mathematical and empirical models, to determine fundamental reservoir properties, such as porosity and permeability.
15 STRUCTURAL HYDROCARBON TRAP This structural trap is formed by an anticline and a normal fault.From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
16 DOMAL TRAPAre hydrocarbons in this field oil or gas?What is the volume of hydrocarbonsIn this trap?What are the reserves?Closure. In map view (top), closure is the area within the deepest structural contour that forms a trapping geometry, in this case 1300 ft [390 m]. In cross section A-A', closure is the vertical distance from the top of the structure to the lowest closing contour, in this case about 350 ft [105 m]. The point beyond which hydrocarbons could leak from or migrate beyond the trap is the spill point.From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
17 WATER DRIVE What is the Drive Mechanism? A reservoir-drive mechanism whereby the oil is driven through the reservoir by an active aquifer. As the reservoir depletes, the water moving in from the aquifer below displaces the oil until the aquifer energy is expended or the well eventually produces too much water to be viable.From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
18 GAS EXPANSION DRIVE What is the Drive Mechanism? A gas-drive system utilizes the energy of the reservoir gas, identifiable as either as free or solution gas, to produce reservoir liquids.Are there otherdrive mechanisms?From Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary
19 TYPES OF HYDROCARBONS Composition Molecular structure Physical properties