3LanguageNormsValuesBeliefs and ideologiesSocial CollectivesStatuses and RolesCultural Integration
4LanguageA set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication – our alphabet and the sounds they make.Social language – the way we speak differently with our friends than our parents, or how we speak differently with a baby than a peer.Communication and Interaction – requires one to speak and the other to respondCognition and reality – the mind tries to make everything make sense.Language and Culture – some languages use one word to describe something while other languages may use more than one.
5NormsNorms – beliefs by a group on how members should behave– the need for orderly, stable, predictable interactionsTypes of normsFolkways – routine or casual interactionsMores – moral attitudesTaboos – a ban or inhibition resulting from social customs or emotional aversionsRituals – the body of ceremonies or rites
6Norms (cont.) Social Control Internal social control – ideologies, beliefs, and valuesExternal social control –Informal sanctions – physical and verbal reactions, embarrassment, avoidanceFormal sanctions – Governments, laws, police, courts, hearings, trials, and punishment
7ValuesValues are anything members of a culture aspire to or hold in high esteem. Values are things to be achieved, things considered of great worth or value.They are human creationsThey can be renegotiated and changed
9Beliefs and ideologies Beliefs are the things members of a culture hold to be true. They are the "facts" accepted by all or most members.They are created by people. They are collective social agreements produced during interaction and reified over time.Beliefs can and do change. Today we laugh at things our grandparents used to believe and our grandchildren will probably laugh at many of our beliefs.Reify means to make something real
10Ideologies are the conscious and unconscious ideas that support ones (or a groups) goals, expectations, and action’s. Some prominent American ideologies:Capitalism.Christianity (Protestantism).IndividualismSexismRacism
11Ideologies are often related and connected to each other where one "makes sense" when considered with another. They also often serve to legitimize each other. Religious ideologies often encompass or subsume many of a culture's ideologies, giving them added legitimacy.It is possible to have ideologies that are conflicting and contradictory.Ideologies are the relationship between beliefs and values.
12Social CollectivesSocial collectives such as groups, organizations, communities, institutions, classes, and societies are also collectively produced symbolic social constructions.Social collectives are symbolic entities. They are defined into existence when people define themselves as a group or are defined as a group by others. However, they remain fundamentally symbolic entities and as such can be renegotiated and redefined.
14The symbolic nature of social collectives means that they are typically justified and maintained by ideological systems and ritualistic behavior.Although symbolic entities, social collectives have a real impact on our lives.Collectives as contexts for interaction.Collectives and local cultures.Collectives, status, roles, identity, and the self.
15Statuses and RolesStatus is related but is not a measure of a persons wealth, power, and prestige. Status tells us who people are and how they "fit" into the group.Status and group membership.Statuses as collective social agreements that become reified over time, but they can and do change.Ascribed and achieved statuses.Master statuses--age, sex, race, class.Status, prestige, wealth, and power.Status inconsistency.
16Statuses and Roles (cont.) Roles are norms that specify the rights and responsibilities associated with a particular status. The term role is often used to mean both a position in society and the expectations associated with it.Roles define what a person in a given status can and should do, as well as what they can and should expect from others.Roles provide a degree of stability and predictability, telling how we should respond to others and giving us an idea of how others should respond to us.
17Roles (cont)Roles are negotiated and produced during interaction, and often become reified over time. However, roles can be renegotiated and changed.Role set, role strain, role conflict, and role transition.Roles, identity, and the self.
18Cultural IntegrationCultural integration refers to how interconnected, complimentary, and mutually supportive the various elements of culture are.Diversity, complexity, and integration.Variation within modern mass cultures.Diversity in historical and cultural traditions.Subcultures.Counter-cultures.Local cultures.The mass media and cultural integration.The relationship between beliefs, values, norms, and behavior.