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Monitoring the EPA A Civil Society Perspective Shantal Munro- Knight Caribbean Policy Development Centre June 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Monitoring the EPA A Civil Society Perspective Shantal Munro- Knight Caribbean Policy Development Centre June 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monitoring the EPA A Civil Society Perspective Shantal Munro- Knight Caribbean Policy Development Centre June 2008

2 Monitoring the EPA The importance of Monitoring ( 1)We must be able to measure the benefits (2)We need to measure impact (3) We need to measure the extent to which the CPA/EPA objectives ie poverty reduction, sustainable development are being met (4) Need to measure the extent to which commitments are kept (4) We need to be able to quickly identify areas where remedial action will be necessary

3 Monitoring in the EPA Article 5 Monitoring The Parties undertake to continuously monitor the operation of the Agreement through their respective participative processes and institutions, as well as those set up under this Agreement, in order to ensure that the objectives of the Agreement are realized, the Agreement is properly implemented and the benefits for men, women, young people and children deriving from their Partnership are maximised. The Parties also undertake to consult each other promptly over any problem arising.

4 Monitoring in the the EPA   Article 189 ( Environment)   Article 195 ( Social Aspects)   Consultation and monitoring process 1. In accordance with Article 1, the Parties recognise the importance of monitoring and assessing the operation of the Agreement on decent work and other areas of sustainable development through their respective participative processes and institutions, as well as those set up under this Agreement.

5 Monitoring in the EPA The Trade & Development Council   To oversee the further elaboration of the provisions of this Agreement and evaluate the results obtained in its application;   To monitor the development of regional integration and of economic and trade relations between the Parties;   To monitor and assess the impact of the implementation of this Agreement on the sustainable development of the Parties;   The CARIFORUM-EC Trade and Development Committee shall generally meet once a year for an overall review of the implementation of this Agreement, on a date and with an agenda agreed in advance by the Parties,……

6 Monitoring in the EPA   CARIFORUM-EC Consultative Committee 1. A CARIFORUM-EC Consultative Committee is hereby established with the task of assisting the Joint CARIFORUM- EC Council to promote dialogue and cooperation between representatives of organisations of civil society, including the academic community, and social and economic partners. Such dialogue and cooperation shall encompass all economic, social and environmental aspects of the relations between the EC Party and CARIFORUM States, as they arise in the context of the implementation of this Agreement. 2. The CARIFORUM-EC Consultative Committee may make recommendations to the Joint CARIFORUM-EC Council and the CARIFORUM-EC Trade and Development Committee.

7 Monitoring the EPA In setting up a monitoring mechanism for EPAs, several strategic questions must be addressed:   − what will be the key objective of the monitoring exercise?   what are the key relevant indicators in view of the objectives pursued?   − what will be the purpose of a monitoring mechanism?   − who should be involved in monitoring?   − what format and legal status should the mechanism have?   − What methodology should be adopted

8 Monitoring the EPA Key Objectives of the EPA   TRADE PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT   Article 1   Objectives   The objectives of this Agreement are:   a) Contributing to the reduction and eventual eradication of poverty   b) Promoting regional integration, economic cooperation and good governance

9 Monitoring the EPA   c) Promoting the gradual integration of the CARIFORUM States into the world economy,   d) Improving the CARIFORUM States' capacity in trade policy and trade related issues;   e) Supporting the conditions for increasing investment and private sector initiative Article 3 and enhancing supply capacity, competitiveness and economic growth in the CARIFORUM region;

10 Monitoring the EPA   f) Strengthening the existing relations between the Parties on the basis of solidarity and mutual interest.

11 Monitoring the EPA   Specific Monitoring Objectives   (i) Economic & developmental outcomes;- the package of EPA-related economic reforms is coherent with the overall national trade & development strategy

12 Monitoring the EPA   ii) Institutional implementation - process& improvement; -implementation capacity, relevance and adjustment costs.   (iii) The Governance Process. Is it participatory, the level of transparency, exercise of power,

13 Monitoring the EPA The Development Bench-Mark Approach The idea of establishing benchmarks for sustainable development through a wide consultative process was first suggested by the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly in 2002. It has recently been reiterated in various ACP Council as well as EU council declarations.

14 The Development Bench-Mark Approach The approach is based on the idea of setting development objectives and comparing expectations with actual provisions in the agreement. Benchmarks are thus used as points of reference for assessing the progress of EPA negotiations towards the development goal they should serve.

15 The Development Bench-Mark Approach   Two separate phases of the development benchmarks process are distinguished. First, an appropriate set of sustainable development benchmarks is designed in a consultative or participatory manner.

16 The Development Bench-Mark Approach   Definition of the set of benchmarks should be the responsibility of all involved local stakeholders to maximise credibility, transparency and ownership. Second, progress of EPAs is assessed relative to the earlier defined “development benchmarks”.

17 The Development Bench-Mark Approach The development benchmarks approach has a number of advantages. First, the benchmarks provide a tool for bridging different interpretations of the development dimension of EPAs and moving discussions forward on the content of the EPAs.

18 The Development Bench-Mark Approach   Second, establishment of benchmarks on sustainable development clarify assumptions and values underlying the EPA monitoring exercise.   Third, the use of development benchmarks facilitates consensus on the exact definition of the specific objectives to be monitored.

19 Specific Development Marks ECPDM Framework  (a) Market Access and Fair Trade;  (b) Policy spaces within the EPA commitments for promoting the competitiveness of CARIFORUM productive sectors, growth with equity and sustainable development; and  (c) Access to development support for realizing these objectives.

20 Development BenchMarks Caribbean Specific Study  Market Access and Fair Trade Key Questions  i. Will the elimination of EU tariffs and the CARIFORUM tariff reduction schedules ensure asymmetry in liberalization commitments as justified by the huge differences in development levels between the parties? In this respect, does the EPA effectively allow for the longest possible transition timelines for CARIFORUM sectors and products?  ii. Do the EPA provisions constitute effective market access solutions to the negative impacts of EU trade-related rules on TBT, SPS, CAP and EU food safety rules? What additional measures will be required?  iii. Does the expeditious implementation of duty free and quota free access for all ACP countries and all exports mitigate the adjustment costs of phasing out the commodity protocols?

21 Market Access  iv. Will the EPA provisions effectively implement Mode Four movement of workers from CARIFORUM to the EU, a vital component in the development of the service export sector and the expansion of non-traditional exports?  v. Does the EPA contain adequate provisions on the procedures for the mutual recognition for professional service providers?

22 Development Bench Marks Policy Space  Policy Space- Key Questions  i. Gender equity assessments need to be incorporated into measuring the impact of fiscal reforms resulting from the EPA, their impact on domestic tax increases and consumer price increases, taking into account the prevalence of women heads of households in the CARIFORUM region.  ii. Does the EPA allow CARIFORUM governments the policy space to protect livelihoods and family farms, food security and rural community development in the agricultural sector?  iii. Will the EPA influence domestic and regional authorities towards more equitable distribution of the economic benefits that may result from trade liberalization?  iv. Do the EPA agreements on government procurement contain a development clause and thresholds that can be used to help stimulate competitive sectors?

23 Regional Integration  Regional Integration - Some Key Questions  i. To what extent does the EPA help to reduce the existing internal barriers among the CARICOM and the CARIFORUM countries?  ii. To what extent does the EPA address the strengthening of regional air and sea transport which inhibits competitiveness and intra-regional production and trade?  iii. To what extent can the EPA facilitate the establishment and strengthening of regional organizations to address common problems of market intelligence, standards, product development, packaging and other export concerns?

24 Regional Integration  iv. Will market access in the EPA be synchronized with the achievement of specific regional integration goals?  v. To what extent will the EPA encourage regional solutions to the challenges of small production capacity of individual CARIFORUM countries?  vi.. Does the EPA provide support for regional language training programmes that will facilitate the participation of civil society and private sector stakeholders in activities at the CARIFORUM level?

25 Regional Integration  ix. To what extent does the EPA create spaces to encourage national firms to achieve competitiveness in the regional market and foster the creation of regional firms?  x.To what extent does the EPA strengthen the linkages between agriculture and tourism, and increases the region’s capacity to source food from within the region?

26 Monitoring the EPA The Process   -   A specific identification of the objectives of an EPA,   − A good understanding of the policy environment prevailing in each regional EPA,   − The identification of possible causal linkages between the EPA and the domestic environment, at the economic, institutional, infrastructure, productive capacity and societal levels,   − The determination of transparent and objective criteria to assess an EPA and its impacts,

27 Monitoring the EPA Key Indicators for Good Process   − The monitoring of not only (static) impacts, but also (dynamic) processes,   − A consultative and participatory process, involving various parties and stakeholders to an EPA,   − A regular and wide dissemination of the results of the monitoring exercise, and   − A regular assessment and critical review of the monitoring approach.   The use of both quantitative and qualitative indicators,

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