Presentation on theme: "A NEW KIND OF WAR The Great War. Leaders made decisions. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by their elders and women. War seemed like an exciting."— Presentation transcript:
Leaders made decisions. Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by their elders and women. War seemed like an exciting adventure! Was it? British diplomat, Edward Grey: “The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.” 1914
Can you protect yourself against the air? The Inside Story The exhausted British soldiers were taking a break from the bitter fighting with German forces. In the distance, they could see the other end of their own line in the trenches. This section was occupied by British allies, including soldiers from France and from the French colony of Algeria.
What is going on? The resting British soldiers noticed a curious thing. Floating through the air from the German lines toward the Allied trenches was a slow-moving cloud of yellowish smoke. Soon, from the direction of the strange cloud, came a steady stream of running men, throwing away clothing, equipment, and anything else that might slow them down.
POISON FROM THE SKY! The British were at first horrified at what they thought was the cowardly retreat of the French and Algerians. They soon learned, however, that the terrified men had good reason to run. The yellow cloud that had floated into their trenches was chlorine gas, a deadly poison. When inhaled, the gas damages lung tissue and causes victims to cough violently and choke. In some cases, the gas kills!
The poison gas used against the Allied troops was one of many new weapons that first appeared in World War I. Together, these weapons produced a horrifying level of death and destruction.
Fighting in 1914 Germany’s plans for a swift victory in France failed. By the end of 1914, the Great War had become a bloody stalemate.
1914 Early Battles Beginning in August 1914, German troops fought the French and the British in a series of clashes known as the Battle of the Frontiers. Both sides suffered heavy casualities BUT the result was a German victory. Meanwhile, Russia attacked Germany from the east. Although the Russians failed to defeat the Germans, it did succeed in distracting the German advance on France. Trench Warfare In the Battle of the Marne in early September 1914, Allied troops succeeded in driving the German forces back. After retreating, German forces dug a series of trenches, or deep ditches, along the Aisne (AYN) River and awaited the Allied attack.
Monkey see, monkey do! Allied forces built trenches of their own! As a result, German and Allied forces would change little in the coming months. This deadlocked region in northern France would become known as the Western Front.
THE WORLD WAR I BATTLEFIELD: MUST – HAVE TECHNOLOGIES Poison gas and other unprecedented weapons were a response to the frustration of the massive deadlock!!!!
Trench Warfare Not a new idea BUT non one had ever experienced it on such a large scale Miserable living conditions – Flooding and mud – Removal of corpses not always immediately possible – Lice – Rats Occasionally, troops would be ordered “over the top” of their trench to attack the enemy. – Jump out of their trench – Sprint across “no man’s land” – Many, shot, died there. (bodies left where they fell!) – Prize for making it to the enemy’s trench? Being bayoneted, of course!!!!
Poison Gas Killed or injured thousands Limited value – why? Could backfire – wind shifts could blow gas back to those launching it! Blocked by gas masks!
Armored Tanks Pioneered by the British Reliability issues prohibited it from making a contribution until later in the war. Benefits: could flatten barbed wire and cross enemy trenches.
Aircraft Unlike tanks, were useful from the beginning. Initially used to observe enemy positions. Eventually mechanics attached machine guns. Pilots began to drop bombs. New, faster planes proved useful in attacking battlefields (trenches) and cities.
Machine guns Fired hundreds of bullets each minute. Used to defend trenches against enemy attacks!
War on the Home Front! Total War waged! (type of war requiring the use of all of a country’s resources) Factories began to produce military equipment. Civilians conserved food and other goods for military use. Propaganda: posters, pamphlets, and articles!
Women in World War I Only a few hundred actually fought as soldiers – nearly all in the Russian army. They were the exception!!!! Most had TWO options: Assist on the home front Work as nurses for the armed forces Contributions helped transform public views of what women could do – including suffrage !
Battles on the Western Front The Italian Front: first move was to attack Austria- Hungary – little progress made The Battle of Verdun: German assault on France; from February 1916 to Dec., France lost 400,000 with Germany losses almost the same. The Battle of the Somme: launched by the British in June 1916; intended to pull Germans away from Verdun; on the first day of fighting alone, Britain suffered nearly 60,000 casualities. The Third Battle of Ypres (ee pruh): 1917 – after three years of battle in Western Europe, the front lines were virtually unchanged.
War Around the World Over 30 countries officially chose sides. Armenian Genocide Gallopoli Campaign – Ottoman Empire Joined the Central Powers in late 1914 – Allies attacked in the Spring of 1915. – After months of fighting and nearly 200,000 casualities, the Allies gave up!
Asia and Africa Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 as part of a military agreement with Great Britain. Japanese forces captured German colonies in China and the Pacific. British and French troops attacked German colonies in Africa. Allied colonies contributed soldiers – India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand.
Literature, Hollywood, and History All Quiet on the Western Front A classic must-see!!!!! Lights, Camera, Action