2 “The Great War”World War I or known then as The Great War was the largest conflict in history up to that point.Facts/StatsFrance- mobilized almost 8.5 million menBritain- mobilized nearly 9 million menRussia- mobilized 12 million menGermany- mobilized 11 million menPopulation of the United States in millionThe Schlieffen Plan- a German plan organized before the war, to avoid a two-front war against France and Russia.Move against France first before Russia can fully mobilize.
5 The Not So Great WarWhen French and German armies first clashed, the Allies were able to drive the Germans back, ending any chance for a quick French defeat.The area between France and Germany became known as the Western Front, where the majority of conflict took place.Both sides began to dig deep trenches, to protect their armies from heavy enemy fire.This trench warfare caused a long, deadly stalemate, a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other side.The battles lines remained almost unchanged for 4 years.
7 Technology of Modern Warfare High casualties were the results of modern weaponry.Two significant new or improved weapons were:Rapid-fire machine gunsLong-range artilleryAnother new weapon introduced was poison gas. The gas blinded or choked its victims or caused agonizing burns and blisters.Gasoline-powered machinery added to the technology:Tanks, Airplanes, SubmarinesIn 1915, Germany used zeppelins, large gas-filled balloons to bomb the English coast.German submarines or U-boats, where used to attack Allied merchant ships.Soon, the Allied organized convoys, or groups of merchant ships protected by warships.
8 Technology of Modern Warfare Machine GunsTanksPoison GasLong-Range Artillery
9 Weapons continuedZeppelinsGerman U-boatAirplanesThe Red Baron
10 War Around the WorldOn the Eastern Front, Russia suffered early losses against the German armies. The defeat at Tannenberg pushed them back into Russia.Lacking equipment and weapons Russian soldiers were ordered to fight regardless.Because of its strategic location, the Ottoman empire was a desirable ally.The Turks joined the Central Powers, then cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles, a vital straight connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.In 1915, the Allies sent a massive force of British, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander troops in attempt to open up the straight.The Battle of Gallipoli, was a disaster for the Allies, as they were trapped on a peninsula and had to withdraw from Dardanelles.
11 The Battle of Gallipoli & The Dardanelles Straight
12 War and the ColoniesEuropean colonies were dragged into the conflict. The Allies overran scattered German colonies in Africa and Asia.Colonies were used during war for:Gathering troopsLaborersSuppliesPeople of the colonies had mixed feelings about serving. Some were reluctant due to ill-treatment, while others eagerly volunteered.Some expected that their service would be a step towards citizenship or independence.