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School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Pre-Design Geotechnical Evaluation of the OII Superfund Site 11th th Ralph B. Peck Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Pre-Design Geotechnical Evaluation of the OII Superfund Site 11th th Ralph B. Peck Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Pre-Design Geotechnical Evaluation of the OII Superfund Site 11th th Ralph B. Peck Lecture by Edward Kavazanjian, Jr. Ph.D., P.E. Arizona State University for WasteMINZ New Zealand 15 October 2009

2 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Ralph B. Peck ( )

3 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment The Operating Industries, Inc. Landfill “A unique urban hazard”

4 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment A Unique Urban Hazard Hazardous Waste Steep North Slope –60 m-tall, 1.5H:1V –Adjacent to SR-60 (Pomona Freeway) Proximity to Homes to the South –MSE Toe Buttress Seismic Exposure

5 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Steep North Slope, Freeway Proximity 1.5H:1V average, 1.3H:1V maximum slope, rising 60 m above grade

6 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment South Slope Toe Buttress (1987)

7 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment 1987 Whittier M 5.9 Narrows Earthquake The “Big Bend ”

8 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Earthquake-Induced Cracks on Benches

9 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Pre-Design Scope of Work Review / Synthesize Available Information Field Investigation Laboratory Test Program Limit Equilibrium Stability Analysis Seismic Hazard Analysis Seismic Response and Deformation Analysis Static Deformation Analysis Toe Buttress Investigation Findings / Recommendations for Closure Design

10 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Review / Synthesis of Available Information Bottom Contours of Quarry East End Interim Cover Southwest Corner Liquid Co-Disposal Toe Buttress Construction Inclinometer Data Previous Geotechnical Studies Strong Motion Records 1992 Cover Failure

11 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment MSW Properties: Shear Strength

12 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Field Investigation SASW Survey 3 x 34-inch (840-mm) Diameter Borings to 155 ft (47 m) –Waste Characterization –In Situ Unit Weight Tests –Video Logging 20-ft (6-m) Deep Test Trench Toe Buttress Condition Survey Cover Soil Investigation

13 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Field Exploration Plan

14 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Vibroseis for SASW Testing

15 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Sampling and Testing Intervals

16 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Large Diameter Bucket Auger Borings

17 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Field Classification Scheme

18 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Field Logging

19 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Waste Degradation

20 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Waste Temperature

21 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment In Situ Unit Weight Testing 1. Auger and collect waste 3. Place tremie pipe in borehole 2. Weigh waste 4. Fill with gravel of known unit weight

22 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment In Situ Unit Weight Results

23 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Downhole Video Logging

24 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Downhole Video Logging

25 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Downhole Video Logging

26 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment On-Site Laboratory Reconstituted 18-inch (454-mm) Diameter Specimens Consolidometer, Direct Shear, Cyclic Simple Shear Less than1 yr for Design and Fabrication

27 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Cyclic Simple Shear Device

28 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Lab Sample Characterization Bulk Sample Sorted Sample

29 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Consolidation Test Results

30 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Direct Shear Results

31 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Cyclic Simple Shear Tests

32 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Cyclic Simple Shear Test Results

33 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Strong Motion Instrumentation

34 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Quad-4M Seismic Response Model

35 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment 13 Oc to be r Wastecon2004Wastecon Back Analysis of Seismic Response

36 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment MSW Modulus Reduction and Damping

37 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Limit Equilibrium Analysis Static Analysis –Horizontal Planes of Weakness –Perched Water Levels –Cover Veneer Failures Pseudo-Static Analysis –Yield Acceleration

38 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Cover Veneer Stability

39 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Seismic Response Analysis

40 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Seismic Deformation Curves Typical range of waste mass seismic displacements

41 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Static Deformation Analysis 30-yr Performance of Final Cover – Drainage – Cracking 30-yr Performance of Toe Buttress – Static (followed by seismic)

42 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Vertical and Lateral Displacments

43 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Toe Buttress Analysis Global Stability –Limit Equilibrium FS = 2.6 Internal Stability –Finite Element Analysis (GeoFEAP) Static: Imposed Deformations Pseudo-Static: Seismic Coefficient

44 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Toe Buttress Displacements Measured Projected

45 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Toe Buttress Performance Analysis

46 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Toe Buttress Analysis Results

47 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Findings / Recommendations 1.The Waste Mass Meets Stability Criteria –Static and Seismic 2.Large Static Deformations are Expected –Continuous Maintenance 3.Toe Buttress Should Maintain Its Integrity –Long Term Settlement plus Seismic Loading 4.Cover Stability is a Major Concern –Particularly the Steep North Slope

48 LESSONS LEARNED 1.MSW is Pretty Strong Stuff –Stronger than Often Assumed in Practice 2.MSW can be Pretty Heavy –Unit Weight Greater than Typically Assumed –Unit Weight can be Very High if Saturated 3.MSW Cyclic Degradation is Slow –Potential for Significant Seismic Amplification 4.MSW is Anisotropic –Preferred Horizontal Orientation 5.MSW Deformation is Non-Homogeneous

49 CONTRIBUTIONS TO PRACTICE 1.In Situ Unit Weight Test Method 2.Field Classification System for Waste 3.Data on Waste Composition 4.MSW Shear Strength Envelope 5.Compositional Effects on Strength, Compressibility 6.MSW Shear Wave Velocity Measurements 7.MSW Modulus Reduction and Damping

50 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment Acknowledgements

51 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment THANK YOU!

52 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment References 1.Matasovic,and Kavazanjian, (1998), “Cyclic Characterization of OII Landfill Solid Waste,” JGGE 2.Zornberg and Kavazanjian, (2001). "Prediction of the Performance of a Geogrid-Reinforced Slope Founded on Solid Waste." Soils and Foundations, 3.Kavazanjian, Matasovic, and Bachus, (1999), “Large-Diameter Static and Cyclic Laboratory Testing of Municipal Solid Waste,” Sardinia ‘99. 4.Avsar, Bouazza, Kavazanjian, Öztürk (2003) “Interpolation of Solid Waste Shear Wave Velocity Using Geostatistics,” XIII th ECSMGE 5.Kavazanjian, Matasovic, and Caldwell (1998), “Damage Criteria for Solid Waste Landfills,” Proc. 6th U.S. NCEE OII data is included in 17 additional Journal and Conference papers, 1 CDMG special report, and 1 additional Journal paper submitted for publication.


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