9 Compaction of asphalt concrete core and transition zones
10 Experience with Asphalt Core Dams 100 dams have been built, most in Europe and China, now also in North and South America;20 are currently under construction or final design;first ones built in the early 1960s (Germany and Austria;15 built in Norway; 3 more are now under construction/final design;
11 Field Monitoring- The first dams with asphalt core were heavily instrumented and thoroughly analysed to better understand dam and core behaviour. - Field performance has been excellent, with no recorded leakage through core or the core-plinth interface at the base of the core.
12 Laboratory testing of asphalt concrete For each new dam and site tests are performed to determine the optimum asphalt concrete mix using:the available (local) aggregates (0-18 mm);filler material ( mm);grade of bitumen available.The goal is to achieve a core with low permeabilty and flexible and ductile stress-strain behaviour with the required strength.
13 Laboratory testing (cont’d) Full advantage has been taken of all the laboratory and field research done for asphalt concrete used in road- and airfield pavements.
26 Pre-cyclic vs. post-cyclic stress-strain behaviour Deviator stress (MPa)
27 Asphalt concrete placed in core Air porosity in asphalt core should be less than 3% to ensure very low permeabilty (10-10 m/s);Placed and compacted in layers cm thick;2 to 4 layers per day depending on required rate of construction;Core width usually cm depending on height of dam.
49 Effect of laboratory method of compaction on resulting stress-strain properties of asphalt Triaxial results from laboratory prepared and field core specimens with the same air porosity have been compared. Differences in behaviour must be considered: - if stress–strain design requirements (compression modulus, degree of shear dilation and ductility) are based on test results from laboratory prepared specimens; - and if finite element analyses are used to predict or back-analyse core behaviour.
50 Effect of laboratory compaction procedure (how to best simulate field compaction in the lab.)
57 Back-calculated max.shear strain in core of Yele Dam
58 Optimum Design Considerations Which embankment type is best suited for the local conditions, considering:- economy (construction and maintenance);- safety/reliability;- impact on the environment.The local foundation/geologic conditions will have significant impact on the choice of dam.
59 Different embankment dam designs: - earth core embankment dam (ECED)- asphalt core embankment dam (ACED)- concrete faced rockfill or gravel dam (CFRD)- geomembrane faced embankment dam (GFED)- faced hardfill dam (FHD or CSGD)Recent comparisons among alternatives show the ACED to be very competitive.
60 Asphalt concrete core - Simple and robust construction method; - Asphalt concrete is a flexible and ductile material with viscoelastic-plastic properties (a “forgiving” material);- No core erosion; therefore no strict filter criteria;- Core adjusts to dam and foundation deformations;- Earthquake resistant; no deterioration of properties;- Self-healing (self-sealing) of any cracks;- Asphalt mix may be ”tailored” to satisfy special design requirements;- Can resist overtopping erosion during construction;