July 28, 1914 – Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia Austria-Hungary Germany Russia France Germany What would Great Britain do?
4 Many Europeans were excited about war › “Defend yourself against the aggressors” › Domestic differences were put aside and nations pulled together to fight the Great War
5 The belief was that modern, industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months without a winner “Home by Christmas” was the thinking on both sides
6 It is the manipulation of public opinion. It is generally carried out through media that is capable of reaching a large amount of people and effectively persuading them for or against a cause. Propaganda
9 “Breakfast in Paris and dinner in St. Petersburg After defeating France, get Russia A two-front war would not be in Germany’s best interests This plan was supposed to prevent it
10 Germany made an encircling movement through Belgium to surround Paris They by-passed French forts built after 1871 Britain joined Allies when Belgium was invaded › Belgium fought back and delayed the Germans › Britain quickly sent troops to France › The French rushed their army to front lines
11 First Battle of the Marne (Sept. 5-10, 1914; Germany was driven back from Paris Russian forces had indeed invaded Germany Both sides dug trenches along the Western Front Germany now had to fight on two fronts A 4-year stalemate resulted
12 By 1915 both sides had built trenches from the English Channel to Switzerland The Western Front spanned 415 miles! 6,250 miles of trenches total! 6 to 8 feet deep Millions died and little land was won It was really insane!
14 Elaborate systems of defense › barbed wire › Concrete machine gun nests › Mortar batteries › Troops lived in holes underground “No Man’s Land” › Land between trenches where soldiers were often mowed down.
15 Boredom › Soldiers would read, write letters, gamble, play games to help pass the time. › Rats (corpse rats) also kept them busy as did fighting to be rid of lice. › Many soldiers went crazy from “shell shock” due to constant artillery bombardments
16 “We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.” Death numbed the soldier’s minds. Shell shock Psychological devastation
17 Medical services were primitive and life- saving antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Relatively minor injuries could prove fatal through onset of infection and gangrene. The Germans recorded that 12% of leg wounds and 23% of arm wounds resulted in death, mainly through infection.
18 Trench warfare baffled military leaders › Attempt a breakthrough = Over the top! › Then return to a war of movement › Millions of young men sacrificed attempting the breakthrough
“The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself.“ “ If you left your food the rats would soon grab it. Those rats were fearless. Sometimes we would shoot the filthy swines. But you would be put on a charge for wasting ammo, if the sergeant caught you.” “I can't sleep in my dugout, as it is over-run with rats. Pullman slept here one morning and woke up to find one sitting on his face. I can't face that, so I share Newbery's dug-out.” “Rats. There are millions!! Some are huge fellows, nearly as big as cats. Several of our men were awakened to find a rat snuggling down under the blanket alongside them!” “Rats came up from the canal, fed on the plentiful corpses, and multiplied exceedingly. While I stayed here with the Welch. a new officer joined the company and, in token of welcome, was given a dug-out containing a spring-bed. When he turned in that night he heard a scuffling, shone his torch on the bed, and found two rats on his blanket tussling for the possession of a severed hand.”
German soldiers after rat hunting in their trenches
Write a short diary entry (5-7 sentences) describing your life in a World War I combat trench. Beginning Review: WW I Alliances and the Schlieffen Plan Beginning Review: WW I Alliances and the Schlieffen Plan
German-Russian Border – Ger. & A-H vs. Russia & Serbia The Frozen Front – lack of food and clothing; 100’s froze to death daily Russia not industrialized was always short on food, clothing, weapons, and ammo Russia’s asset was its numbers Germany blockaded the Baltic Sea and the Ottoman Empire controlled the Black Sea
26 WWI was the first major war to use chemical weapons Mustard Gas and Chlorine Gas The two most popular weapons: They caused suffocation, blindness, skin disorders, and usually death!
28 Mustard gas › Carried by the wind › Burned out soldier’s lungs › Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom
29 U-boats submarines used by Germans in WWI and WWII › developed by Germans Unrestricted submarine warfare › any ship traveling in water around Great Britain was subject to attack
30 easy to attack without being seen attack merchant ships › cut off (British) supply lines Great Britain developed convoys › helped against threat of attack Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
31 Uses of aircraft: observe enemy positions armed with machine guns & bombs attacked battlefields & cities attacked enemy planes (“dogfights”) useful from beginning of war Manfred von Richthofen – Germany’s Red Baron had 80 kills Ace = a person who shoots down 5 or more enemy planes
32 Most countries had few planes at start of war 18’ – 23’ long X 28’ – 30’ wide 120 MPH; 23,000’ altitude; 2 HR flight times Planes had to be easy to fly › first, designed for stability › later, designed for maneuverability Generals began including planes in planning France had had 140 planes at the start of war ended with 4,500. 10,000 existed among all combatants at end of war
The Germans also used Zeppelins and by 1918 had over 100 of these airships capable of bombing missions on London and Paris. 60 – 70 MPH tops Could fly at high altitude but it took longer to climb 28-man crew 4 machine gun pods for defense
36 aka: Landships 1 st armored vehicles First tank; “Little Willie” built by Britain, but soon all nations built their own › 14 tons (weight) with 12- foot long track frames › space for three men (cramped) › maximum speed of 2 mph (on rough terrain)
37 These early tanks were very slow and not really effective Invented in Great Britain, but all powers eventually built them It was thought they would break the stalemate on Western Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdgnZyR X5F0