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1 2  List the 4 Causes of WWI  July 28, 1914 – Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia  Russia Austria-Hungary  Germany Russia  France Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2  List the 4 Causes of WWI  July 28, 1914 – Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia  Russia Austria-Hungary  Germany Russia  France Germany."— Presentation transcript:

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3 2  List the 4 Causes of WWI

4  July 28, 1914 – Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia  Russia Austria-Hungary  Germany Russia  France Germany  What would Great Britain do?

5 4  Many Europeans were excited about war › “Defend yourself against the aggressors” › Domestic differences were put aside and nations pulled together to fight the Great War

6 5  The belief was that modern, industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months without a winner  “Home by Christmas” was the thinking on both sides

7 6 It is the manipulation of public opinion. It is generally carried out through media that is capable of reaching a large amount of people and effectively persuading them for or against a cause. Propaganda

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10 9  “Breakfast in Paris and dinner in St. Petersburg  After defeating France, get Russia  A two-front war would not be in Germany’s best interests  This plan was supposed to prevent it

11 10  Germany made an encircling movement through Belgium to surround Paris  They by-passed French forts built after 1871  Britain joined Allies when Belgium was invaded › Belgium fought back and delayed the Germans › Britain quickly sent troops to France › The French rushed their army to front lines

12 11  First Battle of the Marne (Sept. 5-10, 1914; Germany was driven back from Paris  Russian forces had indeed invaded Germany  Both sides dug trenches along the Western Front  Germany now had to fight on two fronts  A 4-year stalemate resulted

13 12  By 1915 both sides had built trenches from the English Channel to Switzerland  The Western Front spanned 415 miles!  6,250 miles of trenches total!  6 to 8 feet deep  Millions died and little land was won  It was really insane!

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15 14  Elaborate systems of defense › barbed wire › Concrete machine gun nests › Mortar batteries › Troops lived in holes underground  “No Man’s Land” › Land between trenches where soldiers were often mowed down.

16 15  Boredom › Soldiers would read, write letters, gamble, play games to help pass the time. › Rats (corpse rats) also kept them busy as did fighting to be rid of lice. › Many soldiers went crazy from “shell shock” due to constant artillery bombardments

17 16  “We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.” Death numbed the soldier’s minds.  Shell shock  Psychological devastation

18 17 Medical services were primitive and life- saving antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Relatively minor injuries could prove fatal through onset of infection and gangrene. The Germans recorded that 12% of leg wounds and 23% of arm wounds resulted in death, mainly through infection.

19 18  Trench warfare baffled military leaders › Attempt a breakthrough = Over the top! › Then return to a war of movement › Millions of young men sacrificed attempting the breakthrough

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22  “The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself.“  “ If you left your food the rats would soon grab it. Those rats were fearless. Sometimes we would shoot the filthy swines. But you would be put on a charge for wasting ammo, if the sergeant caught you.”  “I can't sleep in my dugout, as it is over-run with rats. Pullman slept here one morning and woke up to find one sitting on his face. I can't face that, so I share Newbery's dug-out.”  “Rats. There are millions!! Some are huge fellows, nearly as big as cats. Several of our men were awakened to find a rat snuggling down under the blanket alongside them!”  “Rats came up from the canal, fed on the plentiful corpses, and multiplied exceedingly. While I stayed here with the Welch. a new officer joined the company and, in token of welcome, was given a dug-out containing a spring-bed. When he turned in that night he heard a scuffling, shone his torch on the bed, and found two rats on his blanket tussling for the possession of a severed hand.”

23 German soldiers after rat hunting in their trenches

24  Write a short diary entry (5-7 sentences) describing your life in a World War I combat trench.  Beginning Review: WW I Alliances and the Schlieffen Plan Beginning Review: WW I Alliances and the Schlieffen Plan

25 24  =XiyWP7EM0tg =XiyWP7EM0tg

26  German-Russian Border – Ger. & A-H vs. Russia & Serbia  The Frozen Front – lack of food and clothing; 100’s froze to death daily  Russia not industrialized was always short on food, clothing, weapons, and ammo  Russia’s asset was its numbers  Germany blockaded the Baltic Sea and the Ottoman Empire controlled the Black Sea

27 26  WWI was the first major war to use chemical weapons  Mustard Gas and Chlorine Gas  The two most popular weapons: They caused suffocation, blindness, skin disorders, and usually death!

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29 28  Mustard gas › Carried by the wind › Burned out soldier’s lungs › Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom

30 29  U-boats submarines used by Germans in WWI and WWII › developed by Germans  Unrestricted submarine warfare › any ship traveling in water around Great Britain was subject to attack

31 30  easy to attack without being seen  attack merchant ships › cut off (British) supply lines  Great Britain developed convoys › helped against threat of attack Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

32 31 Uses of aircraft:  observe enemy positions  armed with machine guns & bombs  attacked battlefields & cities  attacked enemy planes (“dogfights”)  useful from beginning of war Manfred von Richthofen – Germany’s Red Baron had 80 kills Ace = a person who shoots down 5 or more enemy planes

33 32  Most countries had few planes at start of war  18’ – 23’ long X 28’ – 30’ wide  120 MPH; 23,000’ altitude; 2 HR flight times  Planes had to be easy to fly › first, designed for stability › later, designed for maneuverability  Generals began including planes in planning  France had had 140 planes at the start of war  ended with 4, ,000 existed among all combatants at end of war

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35 The Germans also used Zeppelins and by 1918 had over 100 of these airships capable of bombing missions on London and Paris. 60 – 70 MPH tops Could fly at high altitude but it took longer to climb 28-man crew 4 machine gun pods for defense

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37 36  aka: Landships  1 st armored vehicles  First tank; “Little Willie” built by Britain, but soon all nations built their own › 14 tons (weight) with 12- foot long track frames › space for three men (cramped) › maximum speed of 2 mph (on rough terrain)

38 37  These early tanks were very slow and not really effective  Invented in Great Britain, but all powers eventually built them  It was thought they would break the stalemate on Western Front X5F0

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40 39  rapid-fire machine guns were used early  were big & heavy  needed a crew of four to six people to operate  lacked cooling mechanisms  shot small caliber rounds per minute

41 Germany’s “Big Bertha” - 43 ton howitzer could fire a 2,200 lb shell over 9 miles! It took its 200-man crew, over six hours to re-assemble it on the site. Improved and Deadlier Artillery

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43 42  be.com/user/mra llsop#p/c/9DBE5F 08B042293F/20/V DkhMn911ek be.com/user/mra llsop#p/c/9DBE5F 08B042293F/20/V DkhMn911ek

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